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1400                        St. Veronica (Master of St. Veronica)

                                Balamitra and his Wife (Jain Painting)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                Richard II murdered (or starved)  in captivity at  Pontefract Castle (2/17)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Owen Glendower proclaims himself Prince of Wales and begins rebellion

                                Holy Roman Emperor Wenceslaus IV is deposed for drunkenness

                                Aztec empire (-1519)

                                Codex Faenza (aka Bonadies) compiled (1400-1420)

                                Wenceslaus Luxemburg -   (Holy Roman Empire)                          (1378-)    Emperor (deposed)

                                Rupert +                                 (Holy Roman Empire)                          (-1410)    (Wittelsbach)

                                Alexander the Good +         (Moldavia)                                            Prince

                                Binchois, Gilles                                                                     1400-1460               Musician

                                della Robbia, Lucca                                                             1400-1482               Sculptor

                                Dufay, Guillaume                                                                  1400-1474               Composer

                                Chaucer, Geoffrey                                                                1340-1400

1401                        HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                Kazan founded

                                Tamerlane conquers Damascus and Baghdad

                                Masaccio                                                                               1401-1428

                                Nicolas of Cusa                                                                    1401-1464

                                Sforza, Francesco I                                                              1401-1466               Duke/Condottieri (Milan)

1402                        Tres Belles Heures du doc de Berry (Jacquemart de Hesdin)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                Kangnido Map (Korea from Chinese source material)

                                Juan de Bethencourt sets sail from La Rochelle with 53 men to Canary Islands (5/1)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                Henry IV enters Wales in pursuit of Glendower

                                Gian Galeazzo Visconti  of Milan dies

                                Tamerlane defeats Bajazet I Yilderim - takes most of Ottoman Empire

                                Ottoman Interregnum - Bajazet's sons Suleiman and Musa vie for throne (-1413)

                                Malacca founded

                                Spanish conquest of the Canary Islands begins - expedition of Juan de Bethencourt & Gadifer de la Salle

                                Gian Galeazzo Visconti -      (Milan)                                                   (1385-1402)    Duke                

                                Bayezid -                                (Ottoman Empire)                                  Sultan (Bajazet) (Lightning)

                                Huizong -                               (Ming China)                                          (1399-1402)    2nd of Ming Dynasty (Jianwen Era)

1403                        The Niederwildungen Altarpiece (Konrad von Soest) (-1404)

                                Annunciation - from the first Baptistry Doors (Lorenzo Ghiberti) (-1424)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                Battle of Shrewsbury - Percy family rebels - Henry IV defeats and kills Harry "Hotspur" Percy (7/21)

                                Chengzu +                             (Ming China)                                        (1402-1425)    3rd of Ming Dynasty (Yongle Era)

                                Charles VII +                        (France)                                                 1403-1461       King of France

                                Nezahualcoyotl                                                                    1403-1473

1404                        Church Treasury (Altotting)

                                Concerning Liberal Studies (Pier Paolo Vergerio the Elder)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                Owain Glyndwr of Wales declares himself Prince of Wales - allies with French against Henry Bolingbroke (6/14)

                                Pope Innocent VII succeeds Boniface IX (10/17)

                                Albert IV -                             (Austria)                                                Duke House of Albert

                                Albert V +                              (Austria)                                                Duke House of Albert

                                Ladislas of Durazzo +          (Naples)                                                 (1404-1414)    King

                                Boniface IX -                                                                                         Rome

                                Innocent VII +                                                                                      Rome

                                Alberti, Leon Battista                                                          1404-1472

                                Daret, Jacques                                                                      1404-1470

                                Froissart, Jean                                                                      1337-1404

1405                        HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                Timurlane dies (2/15)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                French soldiers land in Wales to support Glendower with initial success

                                Duchy of Burgundy (1405-1477)

                                Voyages of Cheng Ho (Zheng He) - sails from Southeast Asia along  Indian coasts to Ethiopia (-1433)

                                Margaret -                             (Flanders)                                              Countess

                                Philip the Bold -                    (Flanders)                                              Count (from Burgundy/ Son of John II France)

                                Tamerlane                                                                              1336-1405               Conqueror (Kesh , near Samarkand)

1406                        HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                English capture James I of Scotland (1406-1423)

                                Henry - Prince of Wales - defeats Welsh

                                Venice conquers Padua     

                                Robert III -                             (Scotland)                                              King

                                James I +                                (Scotland)                                              King

                                Henry III -                              (Castile)

                                John II +                                (Castile)

                                William -                                (Austria)                                                Duke House of Leopold

                                Ernst +                                   (Austria)                                                Duke House of Leopold

                                Innocent VII -                                                                                       Rome

                                Gregory XII +                                                                                        Rome

                                Lippi, Filippo                                                                         1406-1469

                                Khaldun, Ibn                                                                                -1406                Historian (Arab)

                                Salutati, Coluccio                                                                 1331-1406

1407                        HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                Louis duc d'Orleans is assassinated - precipitates civil war between Armagnacs and Burgundians (11/23)

1408                        Last Judgement (Andrei Rublev)

                                Yongle's Encyclopedia is completed (1403-1408)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                Gotland passses under Danish rule

                                Order of the Dragon is created by Sigismund to protect the royal household

                                Mahommed VI -                    (Granada)

                                Youcef III +                           (Granada)

                                Malory, Sir Thomas                                                             1408-1471               Writer (England)

1409                        HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                Council of Pisa - called to resolve the Great Schism - declares the rival popes deposed and elects a third - John XXIII

                                Alexander V (antipope) +                                                                    Pisa

1410                        Madonna and Child and Saints (Don Lorenzo Monaco)

                                Old testament Trinity (Andrei Rublev) (-1420)

                                Crucifix (Brunelleschi)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                Battle of Tannenberg - Ladislaus of Poland defeats the Teutonic League (7/15)

                                ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                Black Sheep Tukomans take Baghdad

                                Rupert -                                  (Holy Roman Empire)                          (1400-)    (Wittelsbach)

                                Sigisimund +                         (Holy Roman Empire)                          (-1437)    Emperor (Luxemburg)

                                Martin I +                              (Aragon)                                                the Humane

                                Alexander V (antipope) -                                                                     Pisa

                                John XXIII (antipope) +                                                                      Pisa (Baldassarre Cossa)    5/24

                                Ockeghem, Johannes                                                          1410-1497

                                Theophanes                                                                          1330-1410

1411                        St. Mark (Donatello)                                                                                                                                           

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                Peace of Torun of 1411 - ends Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War (2/1)

                                Leopold IV -                          (Austria)                                                Duke House of Leopold

1412                        Scene from the Sta Clara Altarpiece (Borrassa) (-1415)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                Medici family are made official bankers of the papacy (1/16)

                                Go-Komatsu  abdicates as Emperor of Japan - Emperor Shoko succeeds (10/5)

                                Margrethe I -                         (Denmark)

                                Eric VII +                                (Denmark)                                              of Pomerania

                                Margrethe I -                         (Norway)

                                Margrethe -                           (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung

                                Ferdinand I +                        (Aragon)

                                Go-Komatsu -                       (Japan)                                                   (1392-1412)            100th Emperor

                                d’Arc, Joan                                                                           1412-1431

                                Ciconia, Johannes                                                               1370-1412               Musician

1413                        Les tres riches heures du Duc de berry (Limbourg Brothers)  (1413-1416)

                                Quattro Coronati (Nanni di Banco)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                Henry V becomes king of England (3/21)

                                Henry IV -                              (England)                                               (1399-1413)    King (s. John of Gaunt) (Bolingbroke)

                                Henry V +                              (England)                                               (1413-1422)    King

                                Muhammed I +                     (Ottoman Empire)                                 Sultan

                                Mahmud Nasir ud din -       (Tughlaq Dynasty)                              Sultan at Delhi

1414                        The Virgin of the Assumpion - Porta della Mandorla Nanni di Banco) (1414-1421)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                Council of Constance convenes --  called by John XIII - deposes John - persuades Gregory to resign - Benedict XIII isolated (11/16)     (1414-1418)

                                Sayyid (Syed) sultans dynasty begins in India (-1451)

                                Poggio Bracciolini discovers Quintilian's De institutione oratoria at the monastery of St Galen, Switzerland

                                Ladislas of Durazzo +          (Naples)                                                 (1404-1414)    King

                                Gregory XII -

1415                        HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                John Hus burned at the stake in Konstanz (Constance), Germany (7/6)

                                Southamptom Plot – attempt to overthrow Henry V is thwarted (7/31-8/11)

                                Protestatio Bohemorum - Moravian/Bohemian princes send protest letter to Council of Constance (9/2)

                                Battle of Agincourt - St Crispians Day - Henry V defeats French (10/25)

                                ------------------------------------------------

                                Henry V invades France and defeats the French at Agincourt

                                Emperor Sigisimund makes Frederick VI of Hohenzollern regent of Brandenburg

                                Portugese capture Cueta

                                Council of Constance

                                Lorand Lepes +                    (Transylvania)                                      Prince (Vice-voivode)

                                John XXIII (antipope) -                                                                       Pisa (Baldassarre Cossa)

                                Bouts, Dieric                                                                         1415-1475               Painter

                                Chrysoloras, Manuel                                                           1355-1415

                                Hus, Jan                                                                                 1369-1415

1416                        The Martyrdom of St. Denis (Henri Bellechose)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                Owen Glendower dies

                                Council of Constance 

                                Ferdinand I -                         (Aragon)

                                Alfonso V +                          (Aragon)                                                the Magnaminous

                                Francesca, Piero della                                                          1416-1492               Painter (Italy) (1426-)

                                Squarcialupi, Antonio di Bartolomeo                               1416-1480               Musician

                                Jerome of Prague                                                                  1370-1416

1417                        HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                Great (Western) Schism ends - Martin V elected pope - Council of Constance ends

                                Council of Constance

                                Frederick Hohenzollern becomes Frederick I - Elector of Brandenburg - rise of Hohenzollern Dynasty (-1918)

                                Frederick I +                          (Brandenburg)                                      Hohenzollern Dynasty (Elector) (-1440)

                                Martin V +                                                                                             (-1431)

1418                        HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)             
                                Council of Constance ends (4/22) 

                                Mircea the Old -                   (Walachia)                                             Prince

1419                        HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                First Defenestration of Prague - Hussites under Jan Zizka throw burgomeister et al from the windows  (7/30)

                                Bohemia has no effective king at the death of Wenceslaus IV (-1436)

                                Death of Tsong-kha-pa

                                Wenceslaus IV -                   (Bohemia)                                              Luxemburg Dynasty

                                Sigismund +                          (Bohemia)                                              Luxemburg Dynasty (of Hungary)

                                Tsongkhapa                                                                          1357-1419               Founder of Geluk Tibetan Buddhism

1420                        Guyumars, the First King (Shiraz School - copied for Sultan Shah Rukh)

                                Work on the Dome of Florence Cathedral begins - design by Brunelleschi (-1436)

                                Imitatio Christi (Thomas a Kempis)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                HUSSITE WARS (BOHEMIAN WARS) +   (1420-1434)                                              

                                Battle of Sudomer - first pitched battle of the Hussite Wars - Hussites under Jan Zizka victorious (3/25)

                                ------------------------------------------------------------

                                Peace of Troyes - Henry V acknowledged as heir to French throne - marries Charles' VI's daughter Catherine

                                John Zizka, Hussite military leader expels Emperor Sigismund from Bohemia

                                Portuguese reach Madiera Islands

                                Squarcialupi Codex

                                Old Hall Manuscript

                                Trent Codices (-1480)

                                Fouquet, Jean                                                                       1420-1481               Painter (France)

                                D’ailly, Pierre                                                                        1350-1420

1421                        HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                HUSSITE WARS (BOHEMIAN WARS) ...   (1420-1434)

                                Witowt of Lithuania is elected antiking of Bohemia - sends nephew Sigismund Korybut as vicar

                                Peking is the capital of Ming China

                                Battle of Bauge - combines French and Scottish force defeats England

                                Witowt of Lithuania +         (Bohemia)                                              (-1427)    elected antiking

                                Muhammed I -                      (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan

                                Murad II +                             (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan

1422                        Paston Letters (-1509)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                HUSSITE WARS (BOHEMIAN WARS) ...   (1420-1434)

                                Henry V King of England  dies (8/31)

                                Charles VI King of France dies (10/22)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Charles VII Dauphin until 1429

                                Battle of Kutna Hora - John Zizka, Hussite military leader routs Emperor Sigismund again

                                Ottomans control Bulgaria (-1877)

                                Charles VI le Fou -               (France)                                                 (1380-)    King

                                Charles VII +                         (France)                                                 (-1461)    King

                                Henry V -                               (England)                                               (1413-)    King

                                Henry VI +                             (England)                                               (-1461)    King

                                Taj ud din Feroz Shah -       (Bahmani Dynasty)

                                Shahab ud din Ahmad I +   (Bahmani Dynasty)                              Shah (capital at Bidar)

                                Papal Choir in Rome has ten singers

                                Littleton, Thomas                                                                 1422-1481               Jurist (England)

                                Montefeltro, Federigo di                                                     1422-1482               Politician (Urbino)

1423                        Adoration of the Magi (Gentile da Fabriano)

                                Anne of Burgundy kneeling before the VIrgin & Child (Bedford Master)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                HUSSITE WARS (BOHEMIAN WARS) ...   (1420-1434)

                                The Battle of Horic - Taborites decisively defeat the Taborites (4/27)

                                Yaduraya -                             (Mysore)                                               Wodeyar

                                Chamaraja Wodeyar I +      (Mysore)                                               Hiriya Bettada (-1459)

                                Benedict XIII (antipope) -  aka Pedro de Luna

                                Clement VII (antipope) +

1424                        Gates of Paradise (Ghiberti) (-1447)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                HUSSITE WARS (BOHEMIAN WARS) ...   (1420-1434)

                                Battle of Cravant - John Duke of Bedford regent for Henry VI of England defeats the French

                                Battle of Verneuil - England defeats Scottish forces

                                Emperor Yung-lo dies

                                Ernst -                                    (Austria)                                                Duke House of Leopold

1425                        Two Heroines of Antiquity - Fresco, Piedmont (Jacques Iverny)

                                Annunciation (Campin)

                                The Madonna in a church (Jan Van Eyck)

                                The Last Judgement (Master of the Rohan Book of Hours)

                                Portal of S. Petronio (Jacopo della Quercia) (-1438)

                                Story of Joseph - from the Gates of Paradise  (Lorenzo Ghiberti) (-1452)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                HUSSITE WARS (BOHEMIAN WARS) ...   (1420-1434)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY +   (1425-1454)                           Venice vs. Milan

                                Paradiso degli Alberti (Giovanni da Prato)

                                Manuel II -                            (Byzantine Empire)

                                John VIII +                            (Byzantine Empire)

                                Basil I -                                   (Russia)                                                 Grand Duke of Moscow

                                Basil II +                                (Russia)                                                 Grand Duke of Moscow

                                Youcef III -                            (Granada)

                                Mahommed VII + (Granada)

                                Charles III -                           (Navarre)                                               the Noble

                                Blanca and Don John +       (Navarre)

                                Frederick I Wettin                (Saxony)                                                Elector

                                Chengzu -                              (China)                                                   (1403-)    3rd Ming Dynasty (Yongle Era)

                                Renzong +                             (China)                                                   (-1426)    4th Ming Dynasty (Hongxi Era)

                                Benedict XIV (antipope) +

                                White notation in England

1426                        HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                HUSSITE WARS (BOHEMIAN WARS) ...   (1420-1434)

                                Renzong -                              (China)                                                   (1425-)    4th Ming Dynasty (Hongxi Era)

                                Xuanzong +                          (China)                                                   (-1436)    5th Ming Dynasty (Xuande Era)

                                van Eyck, Hubert                                                                 1366-1426                                               Painter

1427                        The Banishment of Adam and Eve (Masaccio) (1426)

                                The Tribute Money (Masaccio)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                HUSSITE WARS (BOHEMIAN WARS) ...   (1420-1434)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                Portuguese discover Azores Islands (1432)

                                Mahommed VII -                  (Granada)

                                Mahommed VIII +-               (Granada)

                                Mahommed VII + (Granada)                                               rethroned

                                Witowt of Lithuania -          (Bohemia)                                              (1421-)    elected antiking

1428                        Merode Altarpiece (Master of Flemalle)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                HUSSITE WARS (BOHEMIAN WARS) ...   (1420-1434)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                English  begin siege of Orleans

                                Annam independent 

                                Aztec Triple Alliance forms between Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopán

                                Masaccio                                                                               1401-1428

1429                        History of Florence (Leonardo Bruni)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                HUSSITE WARS (BOHEMIAN WARS) ...   (1420-1434)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                Siege of Orleans

                                Jeanne d'Arc appointed military commander - raises seige of Orleans

                                Charles VII crowned king of France at Rheims

                                Giovanni de Medici dies

                                Clement VII (antipope) -

                                Gerson, John                                                                         1363-1429

1430                        HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                HUSSITE WARS (BOHEMIAN WARS) ...   (1420-1434)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                Burgundians capture Jeanne d'Arc and hand her over to the English

                                Benedict XIV (antipope) -

                                Bellini, Giovanni                                                                   1430-1516

                                Busnois, Antoine                                                                 1430-1492               Composer

                                Crivelli, Carlo                                                                        1430-1495

                                Tura, Cosme                                                                          1430-1495

                                Pizan, Christine de                                                               1365-1430

                                Rublev, Andrei                                                                     1370-1430               Painter (Russia)

1431                        Cardinal Albergati (Jan Van Eyck)

                                Magdalen Altarpiece (Lucas Moser)

                                Cantoria (della robbia)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                HUSSITE WARS (BOHEMIAN WARS) ...   (1420-1434)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                Joan of Arc burned as a witch at Rouen (5/30)

                                Henry VI of England crowned king of France in Paris

                                Khmer city of Angkor falls (abandoned)

                                Mahommed VII -                  (Granada)                                               rethroned

                                Ebn Alhamar +-                    (Granada)                                               *****

                                Martin V -

                                Eugene IV +

                                Mantegna, Andrea                                                              1431-1506

                                Villon, Francois                                                                    1431-1463

                                d’Arc, Joan                                                                           1412-1431

1432                        Ghent altarpiece (Van Eycks)

                                The Battle of San Romano (Paolo Uccello) (1456)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                HUSSITE WARS (BOHEMIAN WARS) ...   (1420-1434)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                Battle of San Romano - Florence defeats Siena (6/1)

                                Alexander the Good -          (Moldavia)                                            Prince

                                Mahommed VII + (Granada)                                               rethroned

                                Eugene IV ...

1433                        HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                HUSSITE WARS (BOHEMIAN WARS) ...   (1420-1434)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                Cosimo de Medici imprisoned by the Abizzi family (9/7)

                                -----------------------------------------------------

                                Cape Bojador rounded (doubled) by Gil Eannes

                                John I -                                   (Portugal)                                              House of Aviz

                                Edward I +                             (Portugal)                                              House of Aviz

                                Eugene IV ...

                                Ficino, Marcilio                                                                    1433-1499

1434                        Arnolfini Marriage (Van Eyck)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                HUSSITE WARS (BOHEMIAN WARS) -   (1420-1434)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                Battle of Lipany - Ultraquists defeat Taborites (radical Hussites) - Procopius killed (5/30)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Hussite Wars end - moderate Utraquists defeat radical Taborites in Bohemia

                                Medici rise in Florence (-1494)

                                First consignment of slaves brought to Lisbon from Africa

                                Cosimo de Medici +             (Florence)                                              ruler

                                Ladislaus II -                         (Poland)                                                 Jagiellon Dynasty

                                Ladislaus III of Varna +       (Poland)                                                 Jagiellon Dynasty

                                Eugene IV ...

1435                        Baptism of Christ (Masolino)

                                Madonna with Chancellor Rolin (Jan van Eyck)

                                The Descent from the Cross (Rogier van der Weyden) (1438)

                                David (Donatello)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                Congress of Arras (9)

                                Treaty of Arras - Charles VII wins Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy as an ally

                                Treaty of Arras - Philip the Good recognizes Charles VII as king of France - exempted from homage

                                Treaty of Arras - England refuses to relinquish claim to French throne

                                French raid by Xantrailles and La Hire

                                Engelbrekt +                          (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung (Engelbrektsson) (regent)

                                Shahab ud din Ahmad I -    (Bahmani Dynasty)                              Shah (capital at Bidar)

                                Eugene IV ...                                (Patrirachate of Rome)                   (1431-1447)

                                Memling, Hans                                                                     1435-1494               Painter

                                Tinctoris, Johannes                                                             1435-1511               Music Theorist

                                Van der Goes, Hugo                                                            1435-1482

                                Verrocchio, Andrea del                                                       1435-1488

1436                        Della Pittura (Alberti)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                Florence Cathedral, with dome now complete is consecrated by Pope Eugene IV (3/25)                                 first day of the Florentine calendar

                                ------------------------------------------------------

                                Compactata - Utraquists return to communion with Roman Catholic Church - Utraquism religion in Bohemia

                                Hapsburgs and House of Burgundy control Netherlands (Holland) (-1493)

                                Engelbrekt -                           (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung (Engelbrektsson) (regent)

                                Ala ud din Ahmad II +        (Bahmani Dynasty)                              Shah

                                Xuanzong -                           (China)                                                   (1426-)    5th Ming Dynasty (Xuande Era)

                                Yingzong +                            (China)                                                   (-1450)    6th Ming Dynasty (Zhengtong Era)

                                Eugene IV ...                                (Patrirachate of Rome)                   (1431-1447)

                                Nuper rosarum flores                                           Dufay

                                Muller, Johannes (Regiomantus)                                      1436-1476

1437                        St Barbara (Jan van Eyck)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                James I of Scotland murdered at Perth

                                James I -                                 (Scotland)                                              King (murdered)

                                James II +                              (Scotland)                                              King

                                Sigisimund (Luxemburg) -   (Holy Roman Empire)                          (1410-)    Emperor

                                Sigismund -                           (Bohemia)                                              Luxemburg Dynasty (of Hungary)

                                Albert +                                 (Bohemia)                                              Luxemburg Dynasty (of Austria)

                                Sigisimund -                          (Hungary)                                              King

                                Albert +                                 (Hungary)                                              King

                                Eugene IV ...                             (Patrirachate of Rome)                     (1431-1447)

                                Abravanel, Don Isaac                                                         1437-1508

1438                        The annunciation (cortona altarpiece) (Fra Angelico)

                                A Princess of the House of Este (Pisanello)

                                Aragazzi Monument (Michelozzi Michelozzo)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                Council of Basel at transfers to Ferrara  (1/10)

                                ----------------------------------------------------------------

                                Inca Empire established in Peru (1438-1538)

                                Albert II +                              (Holy Roman Empire)                          Emperor (Hapsburg)

                                Lorand Lepes -                     (Transylvania)                                      Prince (Vice-voivode)

                                Karl Knutsson +                   (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung  (regent)

                                Edward I -                              (Portugal)                                              House of Aviz

                                Alfonso V Africano +          (Portugal)                                              House of Aviz

                                Pachacuti +                           (Inca Empire)                                         King

                                Eugene IV ...                             (Patrirachate of Rome)                     (1431-1447)

1439                        HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                Council of Basel transfers to Florence from Ferrara -  discussing end to Great Schism (1)

                                Council of Basel at Florence deposes Eugene IV (6/25)

                                ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                The taille  becomes a permanent land tax in France

                                Prince Henry the Navigator - son of John I of Portugal founds naval institute at Sagres

                                Colonization of Azores begins with people from Algarve and Alentejo regions of Portugal

                                Eric VII -                                 (Denmark)                                              of Pomerania

                                Albert II (Hapsburg) -         (Holy Roman Empire)?

                                Albert V -                               (Austria)                                                Duke House of Albert

                                Ladislaus +                            (Austria)                                                Duke House of Albert

                                Albert -                                  (Bohemia)                                              Luxemburg Dynasty (of Austria)

                                Ladislas +                              (Bohemia)                                              Luxemburg Dynasty (Posthumus)

                                Albert -                                  (Hungary)                                              King

                                Elizabeth +                             (Hungary)                                              Queen

                                Eric XIII -                               (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung (from Pomerania) (VII Dn)

                                Eugene IV ...                             (Patrirachate of Rome)                     (1431-1447)

                                Felix V (antipope) +                                                                               Amadeus VIII

                                Ambrose the Camaldulian                                                  1386-1439

1440                        Madonna and Child with SS Francis, John, Nicholas, & Lucy (Veneziano)

                                On the True Good (On Pleasure) (Lorenzo Valla)

                                Johannes Gutenberg perfects printing from movable type

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                OLD ZÜRICH WAR +   (1440-1450)                  Zürich vs. Old Swiss Confederacy

                                The Praguerie is put down by Charles VII

                                Charles, duc d'Orleans ransomed from England by Philip the Good of Burgundy

                                Frederick III +                       (Holy Roman Empire)                          (-1493)    Emperor (Hapsburg)

                                Frederick I -                           (Brandenburg)                                      (1417-)    Elector (Hohenzollern)

                                Frederick II +                         (Brandenburg)                                      (-1470)    Elector (Hohenzollern)

                                Elizabeth -                              (Hungary)                                              Queen

                                Ladislaus I of Poland +       (Hungary)                                              King

                                Christopher III +                   (Denmark)                                              of Bavaria

                                Karl Knutsson -                    (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung  (regent)

                                Christopher of Bavaria +     (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung 

                                Eugene IV ...                             (Patriarchate of Rome)                     (1431-1447)

                                Meistersinger in Germany

                                Canonici Manuscript                                           Dufay et al

                                Dez Prez, Josquin                                                                 1440-1521               Composer (1450)

                                Frederick I Hohenzollern                                                     1371-1440               Elector (Brandenburg)

1441                        Madonna della Misericordia (Bartolommeo Buon) (-1445)

                                Coronation of the Virgin (Fra Filippo Lippi) (-1444)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                OLD ZÜRICH WAR ...   (1440-1450)                 Zürich vs. Old Swiss Confederacy

                                Francesco Sforza marries Bianca Maria Visconti (10/25)

                                ------------------------------------------------------------

                                Peace of Cremona - wars against the Visconti in Northern Italy come to a truce (11/20)

                                Iancu of Hunedoara +         (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Eugene IV ...                             (Patrirachate of Rome)                     (1431-1447)

                                King's College Choir forms (Cambridge)

                                Boiardo, Matteo Maria                                                        1441-1494

                                Van Eyck, Jan                                                                       1390-1441

1442                        Resurrection (Luca Della Robbia) (1442-1445)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                OLD ZÜRICH WAR ...   (1440-1450)                 Zürich vs. Old Swiss Confederacy

                                Alfonso II is crowned at Naples (6/12)

                                ----------------------------------------------------

                                Mircea replaces Vlad II Dracul as ruler of Wallachia

                                Eric III of Pomerania -          (Norway)

                                Christopher III +                   (Norway)                                               of Bavaria

                                Eugene IV ...                             (Patrirachate of Rome)                     (1431-1447)

1443                        HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                OLD ZÜRICH WAR ...   (1440-1450)                 Zürich vs. Old Swiss Confederacy

                                Battle of St. Jakob an der Sihl - Old Swiss Confederacy defeats Zurich (7/22)

                                ----------------------------------------------------------

                                Albanians under Skanderberg defeat the Turks

                                Battle of Nis - John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania defeats Turks

                                Eugene IV ...                             (Patrirachate of Rome)                     (1431-1447)

                                Matarazzo, Francesco                                                               1443-1518               Historian/Humanist

1444                        St. Francis' Betrothal to My Lady Poverty (Stefano di Giovanni Sassetta)

                                Miraculous Draught of Fishes (Konrad Witz)

                                Last Supper (Andrea del Castagno)

                                Tomb of Leonardo Bruni (Bernardo Rossellino)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                OLD ZÜRICH WAR ...   (1440-1450)                 Zürich vs. Old Swiss Confederacy

                                Truce signed between France and England

                                Lorenzo Valla proves the falsity of the “donation of Constantine”

                                Battle of Varna - Ottomans defeat Christian (Hungarian - Polish) "Crusade"

                                Ladislaus I of Poland -        (Hungary)                                              King

                                Ladislaus V +                       (Hungary)                                              King

                                Ladislaus III of Varna -       (Poland)                                                 Jagiellon Dynasty

                                Casimir IV +                         (Poland)                                                 Jagiellon Dynasty

                                Murad II -                              (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan

                                Mehmet II +                          (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan (Mohammed)

                                Eugene IV ...                          (Patrirachate of Rome)                     (1431-1447)

                                Bramante                                                                               1444-1514

                                Sforza, Galeazzo Maria                                                        1444-1476               Duke of Milan

                                Albo, Joseph                                                                        1380-1444

                                Bruni, Leonardo                                                                   1374-1444

                                Campin, Robert                                                                     1375-1444

1445                        The Annunciation (Master of the Aix Annunciation)

                                Tucher Altarpiece (Master of the Tucher Altar)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                OLD ZÜRICH WAR ...   (1440-1450)                 Zürich vs. Old Swiss Confederacy

                                Kazan becomes capital of independent Tatar khanate

                                Portuguese reach the Senegal

                                Portuguese pass Cape Verde

                                Mahommed VII -                  (Granada)                                               rethroned

                                Ebn Ostman +                       (Granada)

                                Eugene IV ...                             (Patrirachate of Rome)                     (1431-1447)

                                Botticelli, Sandro                                                                  1445-1510               (1444-)

                                Carnevale, Fra                                                                       1445-1484

                                Pacioli, Luca                                                                          1445-1514

                                Signorelli, Luca                                                                     1445-1523

                                Power, Leonel                                                                       1370-1445               Musician

1446                        Portrait of Isotta degli Atti - Bronze Medallion (Matteo di Pasti)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                OLD ZÜRICH WAR ...   (1440-1450)                 Zürich vs. Old Swiss Confederacy

                                Alvaro Fernandezs reaches almost as afar as Sierra Leone - probabably farthest point reached before 1460

                                Mehmet II -                           (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan (Muhammed)

                                Murad II +                             (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan

                                Eugene IV ...                          (Patrirachate of Rome)                     (1431-1447)

                                Perugino                                                                                1446-1523

                                Brunelleschi, Filippo                                                            1377-1446

1447                        Presentation in the Temple (Stephan Lochner)

                                St. Stephen Preaching and Addressing the Council (fra Angelico) (-1455)

                                Vatican Library founded

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                OLD ZÜRICH WAR ...   (1440-1450)                 Zürich vs. Old Swiss Confederacy

                                Filippo Maria Visconti dies - beginning of the short-lived Ambrosian Republic in Milan (8/13)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                Union of Poland and Lithuania

                                Eugene IV -                             (Patrirachate of Rome)                     (1431-1447)

                                Nicholas V +                           (Patrirachate of Rome)                     (1447-1455)

                                Commines, Philippe de                                                        1447-1511

1448                        Virgin and Child (Donatello)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                OLD ZÜRICH WAR ...   (1440-1450)                 Zürich vs. Old Swiss Confederacy

                                Second Battle of Kosovo - Ottoman victory - Ottoman domination of the Balkans (10/17-20)

                                John VIII -                             (Byzantine Empire)

                                Constantine  XI +                 (Byzantine Empire)                               Dragases

                                Christopher III -                    (Denmark)                                              of Bavaria

                                Christian I +                          (Denmark)

                                Christopher of Bavaria -      (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung 

                                Charles VIII +                        (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung  (Karl Knutsson)

                                Christopher III +                   (Norway)                                               of Bavaria

                                Christian I +                          (Norway)

                                Trailok +                                (Siam)                                                     (-1488)

1449                        St. Eligius and the Lovers (Petrus Chritus)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                OLD ZÜRICH WAR ...   (1440-1450)                 Zürich vs. Old Swiss Confederacy

                                Lorenzo de Medici is born (1/1)

                                Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine emperor (1/6)

                                Oriats raids China

                                Felix V (antipope) - aka Amadeus VIII

                                Ghirlandaio, Domenico                                                        1449-1494

                                Medici, Lorenzo di Piero de’                                              1449-1492

                                Beg, Ulugh                                                                            1394-1449

1450                        The miraculous draught of Fishes (Witz)

                                Virgin and Child (Jehan Fouquet)

                                Putti Blowing Trumpets (duccio) (From the Tempio Malatesta) (-1457)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                OLD ZÜRICH WAR -   (1440-1450)                   Zürich vs. Old Swiss Confederacy

                                Battle of Cherbourg - English are expelled from Normandy

                                Promulgation of the "Palace Law" of Siam

                                Zürich is admitted back into Old Swiss Confederacy - ends Old Zürich War

                                Vatican Library founded by Nicholas V

                                Francesco Sforza +              (Milan)                                                   (-1466)    Duke

                                Yingzong -                             (China)                                                   (1436-)    6th Ming Dynasty (Zhengtong Era)

                                Taizong +                              (China)                                                   (-1457)    7th Ming Dynasty (Jingtai Era)

                                Flemish School flourishes

                                Bosch, Heironymus (Jerome)                                             1450-1516               Painter

                                Isaac, Heinrich                                                                      1450-1517

                                Obrecht, Jacob                                                                     1450-1505               Composer

                                Schongauer, Martin                                                             1450-1491

                                Pletho, Georgius Gemistus                                                 1355-1450

1451                        HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                MOLDAVIAN CIVIL WAR +   (1451-1457)

                                Syed dynasty ends in India - Lodi sultans succeed

                                Lodi Dynasty in India (-1526)

                                Murad II -                              (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan

                                Mehmet II +                          (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan (Muhammed the Conqueror)

                                Bahlul Khan Lodi +              (Lodi Dynasty)

                                Columbus, Christopher                                                       1451-1506

                                Gafori, Franchino                                                                 1451-1522               Musician

1452                        Book of Hours of Etienne Chevalier (Fouquet)

                                HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR ...   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                MOLDAVIAN CIVIL WAR ...   (1451-1457)

                                Rome crowns Frederick III emperor - last emperor crowned in Rome

                                Fundamentum organisandi                 Conrad Paumann                  pedagogical book

                                Da Vinci, Leonardo                                                              1452-1519               Painter/Inventor

                                Richard III                                                                             1452-1485               King (Duke of Gloucester, England)

                                Savonarola, Girolamo                                                          1452-1498

                                Vespucci, Amerigo                                                              1452-1512

1453                        HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR -   (1337-1453)

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY ...   (1425-1454)                          Venice vs. Milan

                                MOLDAVIAN CIVIL WAR ...   (1451-1457)

                                END OF THE MIDDLE AGES

                                Mehmet II begins the siege of Constantinople (4/2)

                                Fall of Constantinople - Byzantine Empire ends and beginning of Istanbul as Ottoman capital (5/29)

                                Battle of Castillon - English forced to withdraw from Guienne - Earl of Shrewsbury is killed  (7/17)

                                Hundred Years War Ends - French recapture Bordeaux - English retain Calais (10/19)

                                ---------------------------------------------------------------

                                Henry VI becomes insane

                                Constantine  XI -                  (Byzantine Empire)                               Dragases

                                Afonso de Albuquerque                                                    1453-1515               Explorer (Alhandra, Portugal)           

                                Dunstable, John                                                                   1369-  (1390-1453) Musician  (12/24)

1454                        Coronation of the Virgin (Charonton)

                                St. James Led to Martyrdom (Mantegna)

                                Printing by movable type perfected in Germany by Johannes Gutenberg

                                WARS IN LOMBARDY -   (1425-1454)                            Venice vs. Milan

                                MOLDAVIAN CIVIL WAR ...   (1451-1457)

                                BEGINNING OF RENAISSANCE

                                Peace of Lodi - established power balance between Venice, Milan, Florence, Naples &Papal States (4/9) (-1455)

                                Richard - Duke of York - is regent of England while Henry VI is insane

                                Ebn Ostman -                        (Granada)

                                Ebn Ismail +                          (Granada)

                                John II -                                 (Castile)

                                Henry IV +                             (Castile)

                                Poliziano, Angelo                                                                 1454-1494               Poet (Florence)

1455                        The Annunciation (Piero Della Francesca)

                                MOLDAVIAN CIVIL WAR ...   (1451-1457)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES +   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                War of the Roses in England - civil wars in England between royal houses of York and Lancaster (-1485)

                                Henry VI recovers - Richard of York is replaced by Somerset and excluded from the Royal Council

                                Battle of St. Albans - Somerset defeated and killed

                                Cadamosto - Venetian sailor - explores the Senegal and Gambia rivers discovers Cape Verde Islands (-1457)

                                Prinzenraub - Saxon princes and brothers Albert and Ernest are kidnapped

                                Nicholas V -

                                Calixtus III +                          (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (-1458)

                                Liederbuch                                                            Lochamer              

                                Angelico, Fra                                                                        1387-1455

                                Ghiberti, Lorenzo                                                                  1378-1455                               Sculptor (Florence)

1456                        Mazarin Bible (Gutenberg pr.) 1st book printed from moveable type

                                MOLDAVIAN CIVIL WAR ...   (1451-1457)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                Giannozzo Manetti enters the service of King Alfonso of Naples

                                Battle of Belgrade - Hungarians check Ottoman advance into Europe

                                Turks capture Athens

                                Portuguese reach Cape Verde Islands

                                Ebn Ismail -                           (Granada)

                                Moulay Hacen +                  (Granada)

                                Iancu of Hunedoara -          (Transylvania)                                      Prince

                                Petru Aaron -                        (Walachia)                                             Prince

                                Vlad the Impaler +                (Walachia)                                             Prince

                                Coeur, Jacques                                                                     1395-1456

1457                        Edo Castle in Tokyo is built

                                First surviving dated printed book published

                                MOLDAVIAN CIVIL WAR -   (1451-1457)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                Charles VIII of Sweden is deposed by rebellion led by Jöns Bengtsson and Eric AxelssonTott

                                Stephan III becomes voivode of Moldavia from assisstence by Vlad III of Wallachia

                                Ladislaus -                             (Austria)                                                Duke House of Albert

                                Albert VI +                            (Austria)                                                Duke House of Leopold

                                Frederick V +                         (Austria)                                                (-1493)    Archduke H. of Leopold (Frederick III)

                                Ladislas -                               (Bohemia)                                              Luxemburg Dynasty (Posthumus)

                                George +                                (Bohemia)                                              Luxemburg Dynasty (of Podebrad) (1458)

                                Ladislaus V -                         (Hungary)                                              King

                                Stephen the Great +             (Moldavia)                                            Prince

                                Charles VIII -                         (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung  (Karl Knutsson)

                                Christian I of Denmark +     (Sweden)                                               (1457-1464)    House of Folkung

                                Pasquale Malipiero +           (Venice)                                                 (1457-1462)    66th Doge

                                Taizong -                               (China)                                                   (1450-1457)    7th Ming Dynasty (Jingtai Era)

                                Yinzong + (restored)            (China)                                                   (1457-1465)    6th/8th Ming Dybasty (Tianshun Era)

                                Lippi, Filippino                                                                     1457-1504

1458                        Angel from the Altar of the Sacrament  (Da Settignano) (-1461)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                Matthias I Corvinus becomes King of Hungary (1/24)

                                Pope Pius II succeeds Calixtus III as the 210th pope (8/19)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Turks issue a decree to protect the Acropolis after conquering Athens

                                Alfonso V -                           (Aragon)                                                the Magnaminous

                                John II +                                (Aragon)

                                Matthias Corvinus +           (Hungary)                                              (-1490)    King

                                Ala ud din Ahmad II -         (Bahmani Dynasty)                              Shah

                                Ala ud din Humayun +        (Bahmani Dynasty)                              Shah

                                Calixtus III -                           (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (1455-)

                                Pius II +

                                Sannazaro, Jacopo                                                               1458-1530

1459                        Journey of the Magi (Gozzoli)

                                St. Sebastian (Mantegna)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                Council of Mantua - Pius II covenes (6/1)                             

                                Battle of Blore Heath - Yorkists defeat Lancastrians - link up with York at Ludlow Castle (9/23)

                                ----------------------------------------------------------------

                                Ottomans conquer Serbia (1459-1829)

                                Jodhpur is founded by Rao Jodha, Rajput chief of the Rathore clan, future Marwar state

                                Platonic Academy founded in Florence by Cosimo de’ Medici

                                Chamaraja Wodeyar I -       (Mysore)                                               Hiriya Bettada (1423-)

                                Thimmaraja Wodeyar I +    (Mysore)              

                                Maximilian I                                                                           1459-1519               Emperor (Germany)                             

1460                        The Midnight Hunt (Paolo Uccello)

                                Resurrection (Piero Della Francesca)

                                Madonna with Sleeping Child (Cosimo Tura)

                                Avignon Pieta

                                Orfeo (Poliziano)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                Treaty of Ribe - Schleswig and Holstein should never be separated from each other (3/5)

                                Battle of Northampton - Yorkists capture Henry VI  (7/10)

                                Seige of Roxburgh Castle - James II of Scotland is killed when one of his cannon explodes (9/3)

                                Richard, Duke of York enters Council chamber and puts his hand on the throne - shocking the lords (10/10)

                                Act of Accord  - Henry VI to stay king until death, his son Edward is disinherited, and York to succeed (10/25)

                                Battle of Wakefield - Richard, Duke of York is defeated and killed (12/30)

                                -------------------------------------------------------------

                                Earl of Warwick (the Kingmaker) captures London for the Yorkist

                                Turkey conquers Greece

                                Turks conquer Morea

                                James II -                               (Scotland)

                                James III +                             (Scotland)

                                Messe se la face ay pale                                     Dufay

                                David, Gerard                                                                        1460-1523

                                La Rue, Pierre de                                                                  1460-1518               Musician

                                Binchois, Gilles                                                                     1400-1460               Musician

                                Henry the Navigator                                                            1395-1460               Explorer (Portugal)

1461                        WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                Battle of Mortimer's Cross and Towton - Edward VI - Richard, Duke of York's son - defeats Lancastrians and is made king (2/2)

                                Alexander I Jagiellon is born (future king of Poland) (8/5)

                                Turks capture Trebizond - last surviving Greek state (8/15)

                                Charles VII -                          (France)                                                 (1422-)    King

                                Louis XI +                             (France)                                                 (1461-1483)            King

                                Henry VI -                              (England)                                               (1422-1461)    King

                                Edward IV +                          (England)                                               (-1470)    King (s. Richard of York)

                                Basil II -                                 (Russia)                                                 Grand Duke of Moscow

                                Ivan III the Great +               (Russia)                                                 (1461-1505)            Grand Duke of Moscow

                                Ala ud din Humayun -         (Bahmani Dynasty)                              Shah

                                Nizam ud din Ahmad III +   (Bahmani Dynasty)                              (-1463)    Shah

                                Charles VII                                                                            1403-1461               King of France

1462                        Resurrection (Caspar Isenmann) (-1465)

                                Portrait of a Man (Dieric Bouts)

                                Tomb of Jacob von Sierck (Nicolaus Gerhaerts Van Leyden)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                Castile captures Gibraltar from Arabs

                                Platonic Academy founded in Florence

                                Pasquale Malipiero -          (Venice)                                                 (1457-1462)    66th Doge

                                Vlad the Impaler -                 (Walachia)                                             Prince

                                Radu I +                                 (Walachia)                                             Prince

                                Cosimo, Piero di                                                                   1462-1521

                                Pomponatius                                                                         1462-1524

1463                        WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                Ottoman Turks and Venetians at war (-1479)

                                Turks conquer Bosnia

                                Albert VI -                             (Austria)                                                (1457-)    Duke House of Leopold

                                Nizam ud din Ahmad III -    (Bahmani Dynasty)                              (1461-)    Shah

                                Shams ud din III +                (Bahmani Dynasty)                              Muhammad Shah

                                Mirandola, Pico della                                                           1463-1494

                                Villon, Francois                                                                    1431-1463

1464                        WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                Cosimo de' Medici dies (8/1)

                                -------------------------------------------------

                                Edward IV marries Elizabeth Woodville

                                Accession of sonni Ali Ber of Songhai

                                Sunni Ali Ber +                     (Songhay Kingdom /Mali)                  (1464-1492)

                                Christian I of Denmark -      (Sweden)                                               (1457-)    House of Folkung 

                                Charles VIII +                        (Sweden)                                               (-1465)    House of Folkung  (Karl Knutsson)

                                Pius II -

                                Paul II +

                                Medici, Cosimo de'                                                              1389-1464      Ruler of Florence

                                Nicolas of Cusa                                                                    1401-1464

                                Van der Weyden, Roger                                                     1399-1464

1465                        Federigo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino (Piero della Francesca)

                                The Incredulity of St. Thomas (Andrea del Verrocchio) (-1483)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                Edward IV imprisons Henry VI

                                League of the Public Weal - Dukes of Alencon, Berri, Burgundy, Boubon, and Lorraine against Louis XI

                                Charles VIII -                         (Sweden)                                               (1464-)    House of Folkung  (Karl Knutsson)

                                Jons Bengtsson +                 (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung  (Oxenstierna) (regent)

                                Yinzong - (restored)             (China)                                                   (1457-)    6th/8th Ming Dybasty (Tianshun Era)

                                Xianzong +                            (Ming China)                                        (1465-1488)9th Emperor (Chenghua Era)

                                Boccaccino, Boccaccio                                                       1465-1525

                                Boece, Hector                                                                       1465-1536

                                Tetzel, Johann                                                                      1465-1519

1466                        Einsiedeln Madonna (Master E. S. - of 1466)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                Medici travel back to Florence from summer retreat narrowly escaping assassination and coup d'etat (8/26)

                                -----------------------------------------------------------

                                Warwick's quarrels with Edward IV begin

                                Warwick forms alliance with Louis XI

                                Second Peace of Thorn - Poland gains much of Prussia from the Teutonic Knights

                                Jons Bengtsson -                 (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung  (Oxenstierna) (regent)

                                Erik Axelsson Tott +            (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung  (regent)

                                Francesco I Sforza -             (Duchy of Milan)                                 (1450-)

                                Galeazzo Maria Sforza +      (Duchy of Milan)                                

                                Erasmus                                                                                 1466-1536               Man of Letters (1469)

                                Donatello, Donato de’Bardi detto                                     1386-1466               Artist     

                                Sforza, Francesco I                                                              1401-1466               Duke/Condottieri (Milan)

1467                        The last supper (Bouts)

                                The Triumph of Venus (Francesco del Cossa) (-1470)

                                Self-Portrait (Nicolaus Gerhaerts Van Leyden)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                ONIN WAR +    (1467-1477)                                                Japanese Civil War

                                Charles the Bold becomes Duke of Burgundy - chief rival of Louis XI

                                Civil wars start in Japan - last more than 100 years

                                Charles the Bold +               (Burgundy)                                           (-1477)    Duke

                                Charles VIII +                        (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung  (Karl Knutsson)

                                Erik Axelsson Tott -             (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung  (regent)

1468                        WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                ONIN WAR ...    (1467-1477)                              Jp.

                                Margaret of York marries Charles the Bold

                                Sonni Ali captures Timbuktu from the Tuareg - founds the Songhai Empire in West Africa

                                Cajetan                                                                                   1468-1534

                                Gutenberg, Johann                                                              1397-1468

1469                        WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                ONIN WAR ...    (1467-1477)                              Jp.

                                Lorenzo de' Medici and Clarice Orsini married by proxy (2/7)

                                Clarice Orsini arrives in Florence (6/4)

                                Marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile - unites Spain (10/19)

                                Piero di Cosimo de Medici dies of gout and lung disease, ruler of Florence  (12/2)

                                -------------------------------------------------------------------

                                Marsilio Ficino completes Latin translation of Plato's dialogues - first complete translation

                                Matthias +                             (Bohemia)                                              (-1471)    Luxemburg Dynasty (of Hungary) rival

                                Lorenzo the Magnificent + (Florence)             

                                Gama, Vasco Da                                                                   1469-1524

                                Guru Nanak                                                                           1469-1538

                                Machiavelli, Niccolo                                                            1469-1527

                                Lippi, Filippo                                                                         1406-1469

1470                        Trial by Fire (DiericBouts)

                                Female Donors in the Stalls (Friedrich Herlin)

                                Battle of the Nudes (Pollaiuolo Brothers)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                ONIN WAR ...    (1467-1477)                              Jp.

                                Warwick turns Lancastrian - defeats Edward IV and restores Henry VI

                                Portuguese arrive at Ghana for the first time

                                Turks seize Negroponte from the Venetians

                                Edward IV -                           (England)                                               (1461-)    King (deposed)

                                Henry VI +                             (England)                                               (-1471)    King (restored)

                                Charles VIII -                         (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung  (Karl Knutsson)

                                Sten Sture the Elder +          (Sweden)                                               (1470-1497)            House of Folkung  (regent)

                                Frederick II -                          (Brandenburg)                                      (1440-)    Elector (Hohenzollern)

                                Albert Achilles +                  (Brandenburg)                                      (1470-1486)            Elector (Hohenzollern)

                                Abravanel, Judah                                                                 1470-1530               Philosopher/Physician/Poet (Jewish)

                                Grunewald, Matthias                                                           1470-1528

                                Daret, Jacques                                                                      1404-1470

1471                        Coronation of the Virgin (Michael Pacher) (-1481)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                ONIN WAR ...    (1467-1477)                              Jp.

                                Battle of Barnet - Edward IV defeats and kills Warwick

                                Henry VI dies in the Tower of London - probably murdered

                                Portuguese under Alfonso V take Tangier from Muslims

                                Three Leagues Alliance betw. League of God's House,League of  Ten Jurisdictions and Grey League (Grisons)

                                Henry VI -                              (England)                                               (1470-)    King (murdered)

                                Edward IV +                          (England)                                               (1471-1483)            King (restored)

                                George -                                 (Bohemia)                                              Luxemburg Dynasty (of Podebrad)

                                Matthias -                              (Bohemia)                                              (1469-)    Luxemburg Dynasty (of Hungary) rival

                                Ladislas II +                          (Bohemia)                                              (1471-1516)            Lux. Dynasty (Vladislav)

                                Paul II -

                                Sixtus IV +

                                Durer, Albrecht                                                                    1471-1528               Painter

                                Kempis, Thomas a                                                               1380-1471

                                Malory, Sir Thomas                                                             1408-1471               Writer (England)

1472                        Ludovico Gonzaga receiving the Messenger... (Andrea Mantegna) (-1474)

                                Adoration of the Shepherds (Schongauer)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                ONIN WAR ...    (1467-1477)                              Jp.

                                Venetians destroy Smyrna

                                Battle of Otluk-beli - Turks under Mohammed II defeat the Persian ruler and chief ally of Venice - Uzan Hasan

                                Portuguese discover island of Fernando Po (Guinea)

                                Portuguese reach Benin's major seaport of Gwato

                                Bartolommeo, Fra                                                                 1472-1517

                                Cranach, Lucas                                                                     1472-1553

                                Alberti, Leon Battista                                                          1404-1472

                                Bessarion, Johannes (Basilius)                                          1395-1472

1473                        Communion of the Apostles (Joos van Wassenhove Gent) (-1474)

                                Madonna of the Rose garden (Martin Schongauer)

                                Sistine Chapel construction (Giovanni de Dolci)

                                The Bonci family rebuild St. Andrew's Church and monastery  in Venice

                                Almanach Cracoviensad annum 1474 (incunabulum: Poland's oldest known print)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                ONIN WAR ...    (1467-1477)                                               Japan

                                Nicolas Copernicus is born (2/19)

                                Battle of Otlukbeli - Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkomans under Uzun Hasan (8/11)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Axayacatl invades sister city of Tlatelolco - Moquihuix, ruler of Tlatelolco is killed

                                Sten Sture the Elder ...         (Sweden)                                               (1470-1497)            H. Folkung  (regent)

                                Christian I ...                          (Denmark)(Norway)                             (1448-1481)(1450-1481)        King (Union)

                                James III ...                            (Scotland)                                              (1460-1488)            King (H. Stewart)

                                Edward IV ...                          (England)                                               (1471-1483)2          King (restored)

                                Louis XI ...                             (France)                                                 (1461-1483)            King

                                Nicholas I -                            (Lorraine)                                               (1470-1473)            Duke

                                René II +                                (Lorraine)                                               (1473-1508)            Duke

                                Charles I the Bold ...            (Burgundy)                                           (1467-1477)            Duke

                                Henry IV The Impotent ...   (Castile)                                                 (1454-1474)            King

                                John II ...                                (Navarre)(Aragon)                               (1425-1479(1458-1479)         King

                                Alfonso V ...                          (Portugal)                                              (1438-1481)            King (H. Avis)

                                Frederick III ...                       (HRE)                                                     (1452-1493)            Emperor (Leopold. Hapsburg)

                                Albert Achilles ...                 (Brandenburg)                                      (1470-1486)            Elector (Hohenzollern)

                                Ernest ...                                 (Saxony)                                                (1464-1486)            Elector (Ernestine Founder)

                                Ladislas II ...                          (Bohemia)                                              (1471-1516)            Lux. Dynasty (Vladislav)

                                Frederick V ...                        (Austria)                                                (1457-1493)            Archduke House of Leopold

                                Matthias Corvinus ...           (Hungary)(Croatia)(Bohemia)            (1458-1490)(1469-1490)        King

                                Sixtus IV ...                            (Patriarchate of Rome)                         (1471-1484)           

                                Ivan III the Great ...              (Russia)                                                 (1461-1505)            Grand Duke of Moscow

                                James II The Bastard -         (Cyprus)                                                (1464-1473)            King

                                James III +                             (Cyprus)                                                (1473-1474)            King (Infant)

                                Catherine Cornaro +            (Cyprus)                                                (1473-1489)            Regent (Queen 1474-)

                                Mehmet II ...                          (Ottoman Empire)                 (1451-1481)2          Sultan

                                Husayn Bayqarah ...            (Timurid Herat)                                     (1470-1506)           

                                Ahmad ibn Abu Sa'id ...      (Timurid Samarkand)                           (1469-1494)            Sultan

                                Xianzong ...                           (Ming China)                                        (1465-1488)            9th Emperor (Chenghua Era)

                                Seongjong ...                         (Joseon Korea)                                     (1469-1494)            9th King

                                Go-Tsuchimikado ...             (Moromachi Japan)                              (1464-1500)            103rd Emperor

                                Yoshimasa -                          (Ashikaga Shogunate)                        (1449-1473)            8th Shogun

                                Yoshihisa +                           (Ashikaga Shogunate)                        (1473-1489)            9th Shogun

                                Bahlul Khan ...                      (Delhi Sultanate)                                  (1451-1489)            Sultan (Lodhi Dynasty)

                                Susenphaa ...                        (Ahom Kingdom)                                 (1439-1488)            King

                                Thimmaraja Wodeyar I ...    (Mysore Kingdom)                              (1459-1478)

                                Mohammed Shah III ...        (Bahmani Sultanate)                            (1463-1482)            Sultan

                                Mahmud Gawan ...               (Bahmani Sultanate)                            (1466-1481)            Vizier

                                Virupaksha Raya II ...          (Vijayanagar Empire)                           (1465-1485)            Sangama Dynasty

                                ???????????                          (Ava Kingdom)                                    (????-????)

                                ??????????                            (Ramanadesa Kingdom)                      (????-????)            Mon Kingdom of Peguan  

                                Trailok ...                                (Ayutthaya Kingdom)                         (1448-1488)            King

                                ??????????????                    (Lan Xang Kingdom)                           (????-????)            King

                                Le Thanh Tong ...                (Vietnam)                                               (1460-1497)            King (Le Dynasty)

                                ??????????????                    (Champa Kingdom)                              (????-????)            King      

                                Mansur Shah ...                    (Sultanate of Malacca)                        (1459-1477)            4th Sultan

                                Qaitbay ...                              (Mamluk Egypt)                                   (1468-1496)            18th Sultan (Burji Dynasty)

                                Baeda Maryam ...                 (Ethiopia)                                               (1468-1478)            Negusa Nagast (Solomonic)                             

                                Sunni Ali Ber ...                    (Songhay Kingdom /Mali)                  (1464-1492)            Founder (15th Sonni Dyn.)

                                Copernicus, Nicolas                                                            1473-1543

                                Wolsey, Thomas                                                                  c.1473-1530            Prelate/Statesman (England)

                                Nezahualcoyotl                                                                    1403-1473

1474                        Lamentation over Christ (Bellini)

                                Ginevra di Benci (Leonardo da Vinci)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                ONIN WAR ...    (1467-1477)                              Jp.

                                Louis XI goes to war against Charles the Bold

                                Alliance forms between Charles the Bold and Edward IV of England

                                War between Charles the Bold and Swiss Confederation (1474-1477)

                                Triple alliance of Florence, Venice, and Milan

                                Isabella succeeds to throne of Castile

                                Nautical Almanac (1474-1506) by Regiomantus describes finding longitude by using lunar distances

                                Henry IV -                              (Castile)

                                Isabella & Ferdinand V +    (Spain)

                                Josquin des Prez sings in the court chapel choir of the Sforza family in Milan (1474-1476)

                                Ariosto, Ludovico                                                               1474-1533               Poet

                                Ferrara                                                                                    1474-1528

                                Dufay, Guillaume                                                                  1400-1474

1475                        Adoration of the Shepherds (Hugo Van Der Goes)

                                The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian (Pollaiuolo Brothers)

                                The Investiture of St. Ildefonso (Master of St. Ildefonso) (-1480)

                                Allegory of Discord (Francesco di Giorgio)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                ONIN WAR ...    (1467-1477)                              Jp.

                                Edward IV invades France

                                Peace of Piequigny - between England and France

                                Turks conquer city of Kaffa in Crimea

                                Radu I -                                  (Walachia)                                             Prince

                                Giorgione                                                                               1475-1510               Painter (Italy)

                                Michaelangelo                                                                      1475-1564

                                Bouts, Dieric                                                                         1415-1475               Painter

                                Uccello, Paolo                                                                       1397-1475

1476                        Crucifixion (Rodrigo de Osona the Elder)

                                The Virgin of the Burning Bush (Nicolas Froment)

                                Portinari Altarpiece (Van Der Goes)

                                Tomb of the Doge Pietro Mocenigo (Pietro Lombardo)

                                William Caxton sets up printing press at Westminster

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                ONIN WAR ...    (1467-1477)                              Jp.

                                Charles the Bold arrives in front of Nancy - begins siege(10/22)

                                Duke Galeazzo Sforza murdered in Milan (12/26)

                                Liber de natura et propriete tonorum                Johannes Tinctoris               

                                Fortescue, John                                                                    1394-1476

                                Muller, Johannes (Regiomantus)                                      1436-1476

                                Sforza, Galeazzo Maria                                                        1444-1476               Duke of Milan

1477                        WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                ONIN WAR -    (1467-1477)                                Jp.

                                Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold dies in Lorraine - Swiss & Rene, duke of Lorraine defeat Burgundians - (1/5)

                                Maximilian I, son of Frederick III marries Mary of Burgundy, daughter of Charles the Bold at Ghent (8/18)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                Hapsburgs control Flanders (-1795)

                                Art of Counterpoint                             Johannes Tinctoris

                                Charles the Bold -                (Burgundy)                                           (1467-1477)            Duke killed at Battle of Nancy

                                Anne of Brittany                                                                  1477-1514               Queen of France

                                Charles the Bold                   (Burgundy)                                   -

1478                        La Primavera (Botticelli)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                Giuliano de Medici assassinated on Easter Sunday - Pazzi Conspiracy - stabbed nineteen times in the Cathedral of Florence - Lorenzo escapes (4/26)    

                                ------------------------------------------------------

                                Spanish Inquisition established by Ferdinand and Isabella with the consent of Sixtus IV-persecutes Jews

                                Hungary gains Moravia and Silesia

                                Ivan III conquers Novgorod Republic and incorporates it into duchy of Moscow

                                Turks conquer Albania

                                Thimmaraja Wodeyar I -     (Mysore)

                                Chamaraja Wodeyar II +     (Mysore)                                               Hiriya

                                Castiglione, Baldassare                                                       1478-1529               Courtier

                                Giorgione                                                                               1478-1510               Painter

                                More, Thomas                                                                      1478-1535               Philosopher / Statesman (England)

1479                        Nativity (Michael Wolgemut)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                Joanna the Mad is born to Ferdinand and Isabella (11/6)

                                --------------------------------------------------------------

                                Castile unites with Aragon after Ferdinand succeeds to the throne of Aragon

                                Treaty of Constantinople - Venice agrees to pay tribute to the Ottoman Empire for trading rights in Black Sea

                                Blanca and Don John -        (Navarre)

                                Leonor +-                               (Navarre)

                                Francisco Febo +                 (Navarre)

                                John II -                                 (Aragon)

                                Ferdinand II +                       (Aragon)                                                King ("Catholic")

                                Merici, Angela                                                                      1479-1540

1480                        Old Man with a young boy (Ghirlandaio)

                                Temptation of St. Anthony (Martin Schongauer) (-1490)

                                Bartolomeo Colleoni Monument (Verrocchio)

                                Morris Dancer (Erasmus Grasser)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                Great Stand on the Ugra River (10)

                                -------------------------------------------------

                                Ivan III the Great ends allegiance with the Tatars

                                Ivan III proclaimed Czar and Autocrat of Russia

                                Turks besiege Rhodes - held by the Knights of St. John

                                Trent Codices                                                       Dufay et al

                                First Masses                                                         Obrecht 

                                Altdorfer, Albrecht                                                              1480-1538

                                Lotto, Lorenzo                                                                      1480-1557

                                Magellan, Ferdinand                                                           1480-1521

                                Margaret of Austria                                                             1480-1530               Hapsburg Princess (d. Maximilian I)

                                Squarcialupi, Antonio di Bartolomeo                               1416-1480               Musician              

1481                        Delivery of the Keys to Saint Peter (Pietro Vanucci Perugino)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                Inquisition proceedings begin in Spain

                                Mohammed II dies - founder of Ottoman Empire

                                Christian I -                           (Denmark)(Norway)

                                Hans +                                   (Denmark)(Norway)            

                                Francisco Febo -                  (Navarre)

                                Catalina +                              (Navarre)                                               and Don John of Aragon

                                Alfonso V Africano -           (Portugal)                                              House of Aviz

                                John II +                                (Portugal)                                              House of Aviz

                                Muhammed II -                     (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan (the Conqueror)

                                Bayezid II +                           (Ottoman Empire)                 Sultan

                                Peruzzi, Baldassare                                                              1481-1536

                                Fouquet, Jean                                                                       1420-1481                               Painter (France)

                                Littleton, Thomas                                                                 1422-1481                               Jurist (England)

1482                        St. Augustine and St. Gregory (Michael Pacher) (-1483)

                                Elmina Castle construction (Sao Jorge da Mina)- said to be the oldest European building south of Sahara

                                Leonardo da Vinci travels to Milan to work

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                WAR OF FERRARA +   (1482-1484)                                 Papacy/Venice vs. Ercole d'Este Duke of Ferrara

                                Portuguese settle Gold Coast (Ghana)

                                Portuguese navigator Diego Cao explores the Congo River (-1484)

                                Treaty of Arras - between Louis XI of France and local governments of the Netherlands                    

                                Moulay Hacen -                   (Granada)

                                Abou Abdilehi +                  (Granada)                                               Boabdil

                                Shams ud din III -                (Bahmani Dynasty)                              Muhammad Shah

                                Mahmud Shah +                   (Bahmani Dynasty)

                                della Robbia, Lucca                                                             1400-1482               Sculptor

                                Montefeltro, Federigo di                                                     1422-1482               Politician (Urbino)

                                Van der Goes, Hugo                                                            1435-1482              

1483                        Copy of Jal al-din Rumi's Mathnawai (Bookbinding)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                WAR OF FERRARA ...    (1482-1484)                                               Papacy/Venice vs. Ercole d'Este Duke of Ferrara

                                Portuguese navigator Diego Cao explores Angola and the Congo River - first voyage(-1484)

                                Edward V and his brother are murdered in the Tower of London

                                Archduke Maximilian of Austria recognizes Treaty of Arras

                                Aquisition of Burgundy by France recognized

                                Portuguese threat to Spain eliminated

                                Louis XI -                              (France)                                                 (1461-)

                                Charles VIII +                        (France)                                                 (-1498)    King

                                Edward IV -                           (England)                                               (1471-)    (s. Richard of York) murdered           

                                Edward V +-                          (England)                                               *****

                                Richard III +                          (England)                                               (-1485)    (u. Edward V) (duke of Gloucester)

                                Papal Choir in Rome twenty four

                                Luther, Martin                                                                      1483-1546               Church Reformer

                                Raphael                                                                                  1483-1520               Painter

1484                        "November" from Tres Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Jean Colombe)

                                Self Portrait at 13 (Albrecht Durer)

                                Oration on the Dignity of Man (Mirandola)

                                Morte D'Arthur (Malory)                                                                    printed by Caxton

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                WAR OF FERRARA -  (1482-1484)                                   Papacy/Venice vs. Ercole d'Este Duke of Ferrara

                                Diogo Cão receives coat of arms from John II (4/14)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Discovery of Congo estuary by Diogo Cao

                                Diogo Cão's second voyage  (1484-1486)

                                Sixtus IV -                               (Patriarchate of Rome)                        (1471-1484)

                                Innocent VIII +                       (Patriarchate of Rome)                        (1484-1492)            

                                Scalinger, Julius Caesar                                                      1484-1558

                                Tyndale, William                                                                  1484-1536               Biblical Translator (England)

                                Zwingli                                                                                   1484-1531

                                Carnevale, Fra                                                                       1445-1484

1485                        Birth of venus (Sandro Botticelli) (-1486)

                                Venus and mars (Sandro Botticelli) (-1486)

                                The Donne Triptych (Hans Memling)

                                St. Francis in Ecstasy (Bellini)

                                Virgin Annunciate (Andrea Sansovino Contucci) (-1490)

                                De Re Aedificatoria (Alberti)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                Battle of Bosworth Field - Henry Tudor (VII) defeats & kills Richard III - becomes first Tudor monarch (8/22)

                                --------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                Tudor Dynasty in England replaces Angevin dynasty  (-1603)

                                Wettin Family Holdings in Germany split into Ernestine and Albertine lines - Frederick I's sons

                                Hungary captures Vienna and acquires lower Austria - Hungary becomes most powerful state in Central Europe

                                Christopher Columbus first presents his plan to the Portuguese court

                                Richard III -                           (England)                                               (1483-)    (u. Edward V) (Duke of Gloucester)

                                Henry VII +                           (England)                                               (-1509)    (Tudor) (Earl of Richmond)

                                Cromwell, Thomas                                                               1485-1540               Statesman (Putney, England)

                                Janequin, Clement                                                                1485-1558               Musician

                                Patinir, Joachim                                                                    1485-1524

                                Vecellio, Tiziano (Titian)                                                     1485-1576               (1477-)

                                Verrazano, Giovanni da                                                       1485-1528

                                Richard III                                                                             1452-1485               King (Duke of Gloucester, England)

1486                        Annunciation (Carlo Crivelli)

                                Oration on the Dignity of Man (Pico della Mirandola)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES ...   (1455-1487)                              Lancaster vs. York

                                Accession of Maximilian I - King of Germans

                                Henry VII marries Elizabeth of York - unites houses of York and Lancaster

                                Albert Achilles -                   (Brandenburg)                                      Elector (Hohenzollern) (-1486)

                                Srey Sukonthor +                 (Cambodia)                                            (-1512)

                                Auitzotl +                              (Aztec Empire)                                      (-1502)    Emperor (Chief Speaker)

                                Josquin des Prez sings in the papal choir under Pope Innocent VIII in Rome (-1494)

                                Agrippa v. Nettesheim, Henricus Cornelius                    1486-1535

1487                        San Giobbe Altarpiece (Giovanni Bellini)

                                Martin van Nieuwenhove (Hans Memling)

                                Adoration of the Magi (Domenico Ghirlandaio)

                                Life of St. Philip (Filippino Lippi)

                                Kremlin begins construction

                                Malleus Maleficarum (James Sprenger/Heinrich Kramer)  important witch-hunting manual (pub. Germany)

                                WAR OF THE ROSES -   (1455-1487)                               Lancaster vs. York

                                Lambert Simnel is crowned King Edward VI of England in Christchurch, Dublin - challenges Henry VII (5/24)

                                Battle of Stoke Field - Henry VII defeats pro-Lambert Simnel forces under John de la Pole - ends ROW (6/16)

                                Bartholomew Diaz leaves Lisbon for journey around Cape of Good Hope (8)

                                Hongzhi becomes 10th Ming Emperor of China (9/9)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Auitzotl, 8th Aztec Emperor dedicates the Great Temple Pyramid of Tenochtitlan w/ "1000s" of sacrifices

                                Spanish conquer Málaga in Andalusia

                                Sarto, Andrea del                                                                 1487-1531

1488                        Painting in copy of Sadi's Bustan (Bihzad)

                                Bartomoleu Diaz lands at Mossel Bay (2/3)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Bartomoleu Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope

                                James III -                              (Scotland)                                              King

                                James IV +                             (Scotland)                                              King

                                Trailok -                                 (Siam)    

                                Xianzong -                             (China)                                                   (1465-)    9th Ming Dynasty (Chenghua Era)

                                Xiaozong +                            (China)                                                   (-1506)    10th Ming Dynasty (Hongzhi Era)

                                Glareanus                                                                              1488-1563               Musician

                                Van Orley, Bernaert                                                             1488-1541

                                Verrocchio, Andrea del                                                       1435-1488

1489                        Prose Poem (Yao Shou) (China)

                                St. George and the Dragon with the Princess of Lybia (Bernt Notke)

                                Cem, exiled Ottoman challenger to brother Bayezid II,  is transfered to Pope Innocent VIII in Rome - Bayezid II pays off pope (3)

                                Catherine Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus, sells her Kingdom to Venice (3/14)

                                Treaty of Medina del Campo - between England and Spain - for marriage bet. Arthur and Catherine (3/26)

                                Innocent VIII excommunicates and deposes  Ferdinand I of Naples by Papal Bull- offers throne to Charles VIII of France (Angevin claim)  (9/11)

                                Arthur Tudor is named Prince of Wales (11/29)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Typhus sweeps through Spain, first appearance in Europe

                                Bahlul Khan Lodi -               (Lodi Dynasty)

                                Sikandar Lodi +                    (Lodi Dynasty)

                                Correggio, Antonio Allegri                                                1489-1534               (-1494)   

                                Cranmer, Thomas                                                                 1489-1556               Churchman (England)

                                Schwekfeld, Kaspar                                                             1489-1561

1490                        The Triumph of Caesar (Andrea Mantegna)

                                Portraits of Durer’s Parents (Durer)

                                Tirant lo Blanc                  (Joanot Martorell/Martí Joan de Galba)                           (published in Valencia)     1st "modern" novel?

                                Castanea Conspiracy -  to poison Djem (Cem) and Pope Innocent VIII foiled - Cristoforo Castanea pincered and quartered (5)

                                Marriage of Maximilian I to Anne of Brittany by proxy (12/19)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Yoshitane becomes Ashikaga  Shogun of Japan

                                Catholic Missionaries reach Kingdom of Kongo

                                Small asteroid kills thousands in China?

                                Matthias Corvinus -            (Hungary)                                              King

                                Ladislas of Bohemia +         (Hungary)                                              King

                                Gombert, Nicolas                                                                  1490-1556

                                Sermisy, Claudin de                                                             1490-1562               Musician

                                Willaert, Adrian                                                                    1490-1562               Composer

1491                        Henry VIII is born (6/28)

                                Henry VIII                                                                             1491-1547

                                Loyola, Ignatius                                                                   1491-1556

                                Schongauer, Martin                                                             1450-1491

1492                        Lamentation Group (Guido Mazzoni)

                                Ferdinand V of Castile captures Grenada - ends Muslim influence in Spain (1/2)

                                Boabdil hands over keys of the city to Ferdinand (1/6)

                                Ferdinand and Isabella's Edict compelling Jews to convert to Christianity or leave by midnight August 2 (3/30)

                                Lorenzo de Medici dies (4/9)

                                Memorandum of Agreement (Capitulations) - between Columbus and F & Y - monarchs to take 90% (4/17)

                                Memorandum of Agreement (Capitulations) - Columbus to retain jurisdiction of new lands in perpetuity (4/17)

                                Columbus sails from Grenada to Palos to prepare for expedition (5/12) (Saturday)

                                Pope Innocent VIII dies (7/25)

                                Columbus expedition sets sail from bar of Saltes (8 am) (8/3) (Friday)

                                Papal Conclave of 1492 - elects Roderigo Borgia pope (8/6-11)   Monday

                                Alexander VI becomes Pope (8/11)  (Saturday)

                                Columbus sees a light 50 miles off San Salvador (10 pm) (10/11)

                                Christopher Columbus lands in Bahamas at Guanahani island of the Lucayos (San Salvador) (10/12) (Friday)

                                Luis de Torres and Adelantado de Murcia  go on hike to the interior of Cuba (11/2) 

                                Columbus first hears about cannibals (11/4)

                                Luis de Torres and Adelantado de Murcia return from 12 league trek to the interior of Cuba (11/6)

                                Two eldest youths of the six captured on 11/6 run away (11/17) (Saturday)

                                Pinzon takes off without leave on the Pinta in search for gold (11/21)

                                Columbus meets antagonistic natives for the first time with spears raised resisting them at the shore (11/27)

                                Columbus reaches Hispaniola (12/5-6)

                                Santa Maria runs aground on Hispaniola - King Guacanagarix helps Columbus offload (12/25)

                                -----------------------------------------------------------------

                                Ferdinand V of Castile conquers Granada - ends Muslim influence in Spain

                                Unification of Spain

                                Ferdinand and Isabella expel Muslims and Jews

                                Duchy of Brittany annexed by France

                                Abou Abdilehi -                    (Granada)                                              Boabdil

                                Casimir IV -                         (Poland)                                                 Jagiellon Dynasty

                                John Albert +                       (Poland)                                                 Jagiellon Dynasty

                                Sunni Ali Ber -                    (Songhay Kingdom /Mali)                  (1464-1492)

                                Innocent VIII -                      (Patriarchate of Rome)

                                Alexander VI +                     (Patriarchate of Rome)                       Roderigo Borgia

                                Jacob Obrecht at Antwerp (-1504)

                                Busnois, Antoine                                                                 1430-1492               Composer

                                Francesca, Piero della                                                          1416-1492               Painter (Italy)

                                Medici, Lorenzo di Piero de’                                              1449-1492

1493                        Coronation of the Virgin (Crivelli)

                                Self portrait with Eryngium Flower (Durer)

                                Self Portrait from the S. Lorenz Tabernacle, Nuremberg (Adam Kraft) (-1496)

                                Eve (Tilman Riemenschneider)

                                Columbus crew battle with Caribs - Christians to fifty Caribs  (1/13)

                                Christpher Columbus expedition returns to bar of Saltes, Spain (3/15)

                                Frederick III, Homan Emperor dies while having leg amputated - Maximilian I takes over as sole ruler(8/19)

                                Columbus' second voyage leaves Canary Islands (10/13)

                                Columbus reaches La Navidad on Hispaniola (11/28)

                                ------------------------------------------------------------

                                Treaty of Senlis - Maximilian forces Charles VIII of France to return Margaret of Austria's territorial dowry

                                Treaty of Senlis - Maximilian regains Artois and Franche-Comte

                                Pope Alexander VI divides newly discovered lands between Spain and Portugal

                                Songhai Empire reaches its greatest height under askia Mohammed the Great

                                Askia Mohammed the Great conquers much of the Mandingo Empire

                                Frederick III (Hapsburg) -   (Holy Roman Empire)?

                                Frederick V -                          (Austria)                                                (1457-1493)            Archduke House of Leopold

                                Maximilian I +                       (Holy Roman Empire)(Austria)          (1493-1519)             Archduke House of Leopold (Hapsburg)

                                Paracelcus                                                                             1493-1541

1494                        Miracle of the True Cross (Carpaccio) (-1495)

                                Adoration of the Magi (Gregor and Michael Erhart)

                                Birth of Christ - Klosterkirche (Gregor and Michael Erhart)

                                FIRST ITALIAN WAR +   (1494-1495)

                                Ferdinand I King of Naples dies, Alphonso II succeeds (1/25)

                                First Battle of Acentejo - Guanches of Tenerife defeat Spanish invading force in the Canary Islands (5/31)

                                Treaty of Tordesillas - Divides New World between Spain and Portugal (6/7)

                                Gian Galleazo Sforza dies  -  6th Duke of Milan - possibly poisoned by Ludovico Sforza (10/21)

                                Charles VIII enters Florence (11/17)

                                Charles VIII enters Rome (12/31)

                                -------------------------------------------------------------

                                Charles VIII invades Italy - First French invasion of Italy - Fall of the Medici

                                Florentine Republic reestablished

                                Statute of Drogheda

                                Philip I the Fair of the House of Hapsburg assumes control of Burgundy

                                Maximilian I ...                      (Holy Roman Empire)(Austria)          (1493-1519)           Emperor /  Archduke House of Leopold (Hapsburg)

                                Ferdinand I -                         (Naples)                                                 (1458-1494)    King    Don Ferrante

                                Alphonso II +                       (Naples)                                                 (1494-1495) King

                                Philip the Handsome +        (Netherlands)                                        Count (Son of Maximilian)

                                Radu the Great +                  (Walachia)                                             Prince

                                Francis I                                                                                 1494-1547

                                Sachs, Hans                                                                          1494-1576

                                Boiardo, Matteo Maria                                                        1441-1494

                                Ghirlandaio, Domenico                                                        1449-1494

                                Memling, Hans                                                                     1435-1494               Painter

                                Mirandola, Pico della                                                           1463-1494

1495                        Scenes of Daily Life (Israel van Meckenem) (-1503)

                                Temptation of St. Anthony (Hieronymus Bosch)

                                Last Supper (Leonardo da Vinci) (-1498)

                                Hunt of the Unicorn - Tapestry Series (South Lowlands) (-1505)

                                FIRST ITALIAN WAR -   (1494-1495)

                                Briçonnet named Cardinal (1/16)

                                Charles VIII enters Naples without siege or pitched battle (2/22)

                                The Holy League (Lg. of Venice) forms- Milan, Venice, HRE, Spain, and Pope - against Charles VIII (3/31)

                                John II -                                 (Portugal)                                              House of Aviz

                                Emanuel I +                           (Portugal)                                              House of Aviz

                                Maximilian I ...                      (Holy Roman Empire)(Austria)          (1493-1519)             Archduke House of Leopold (Hapsburg)

                                Alphonso II -                        (Naples)                                                 (1494-1495) King

                                Ferdinand II +                       (Naples)                                                (1465-1496)

                                Gombert, Nicolas                                                                  1495-1560               Composer

                                Rabelais, Francis                                                                  1495-1553

                                Crivelli, Carlo                                                                        1430-1495

                                Tura, Cosme                                                                          1430-1495

1496                        Procession in the Piazza di San Marco (Gentile Bellini)

                                Portrait of Frederick the Wise (Albrecht Durer)

                                Henry VII gives John Cabot patent to explore "...the eastern, western and northern sea" (3/5)

                                Columbus sets sail back to Spain (3/10)

                                Philip the Fair marries Joanna I daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella in Lier Belgium(10/20)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Henry VII of England joins the Holy League

                                Commercial treaty between England and the Netherlands

                                Santo Domingo founded - first European town in "New World"

                                Maximilian I ...                      (Holy Roman Empire)(Austria)          (1493-1519)             Archduke House of Leopold (Hapsburg)

                                Ferdinand II -                        (Naples)                                                 (1495-1496)

                                Practica musicae                                                   Gafori

                                Walter, Johann                                                                     1496-1570               Composer

1497                        Samson and the Lion (Albrecht Durer) (-1498)

                                Bonfire of the Vanities - massive quantity of art, books, and cosmetics are burned by Savonarola's supporters in Florence (2/7)   Mardi Gras

                                John Cabot begins his voyage to the west on the Matthew with a crew of 19 (5/2)

                                John Cabot expedition reaches Labrador or cape Breton (6/9)

                                John Cabot begins his return voyage (6/26)

                                John Cabot and crew arrive back in Bristol (8)

                                Vasco de Gama begins his voyage to Calicut from Lisbon (7/18)                                (-1498)

                                Infante Don Juan dies - Joanna now heir to Spanish throne (10/4)

                                ------------------------------------------------------------------

                                Jews expelled from Portugal

                                John Cabot explores northeast coast from Newfoundland to Delaware

                                First voyage of Amerigo Vespucci

                                Maximilian I ...                      (Holy Roman Empire)(Austria)          (1493-1519)             Archduke House of Leopold (Hapsburg)

                                Sten Sture the Elder -           (Sweden)                                               (1470-)    House of Folkung  (regent)

                                Hans (John) II +                   (Sweden)                                               House of Folkung  (from Denmark)

                                La Déploration sur la mort Ockeghem              Josquin des Prez

                                Holbein, Hans                                                                       1497-1543

                                Melanchthon                                                                        1497-1560

                                Ockeghem, Johannes                                                          1410-1497

1498                        Christ Crowned with Thorns (Juan de Flandes)

                                 Self-portrait with landscape (Albrecht Durer)

                                St. Michael and the Dragon - Apocalypse Series (Albrecht Durer)

                                The Annunciation (Master of Moulins) (-1499)

                                Pieta (Michelangelo) (-1499)

                                Savanarola burned at the stake in Florence (5/23)

                                Santo Domingo officially founded on Hispaniola (8/5)

                                -----------------------------------------------------------

                                Thomas Wolsey ordained as a priest

                                Columbus discovers Trinidad and South America

                                Vasco de Gama of Portugal reaches India around Cape of Good Hope

                                Arrival of Portuguese on East African coast - reach Mombasa

                                Maximilian I ...                      (Holy Roman Empire)(Austria)          (1493-1519)             Archduke House of Leopold (Hapsburg)

                                Charles VIII -                        (France)                                                (1483-1498)    King

                                Louis XII +                            (France)                                                (1498-1515)    King (Orleans)

                                Venetian printer Ottavinio dei Petrucci gains licence to print music

                                Ottavinio dei Petrucci becomes first to print complete song collections from movable type

                                Vienna Boys Choir forms

                                Savonarola, Girolamo                          5/23                         1452-1498

1499                        SECOND ITALIAN WAR (WAR OVER NAPLES) +   (1499-1504)

                                SWABIAN WAR +- (1499)  Old Swiss Confederacy vs. House of Hapsburg

                                TURKISH VENETIAN WAR +   (1499-1503)

                                Battle of Dornach - Swiss Confederation defeated by Hapsburg army under Maximilian (7/22)

                                Treaty of Basel - ends Swabian War - Basel enters Confederacy (1501)  (9/22)

                                -----------------------------------------------------------

                                Louis XII invades Italy

                                Amerigo Vespucci sights coast of South America

                                Swabian War

                                Maximilian I ...                      (Holy Roman Empire)(Austria)          (1493-1519)             Archduke House of Leopold (Hapsburg)

                                Franck, Sebastian                                                                 1499-1543

                                Ficino, Marcilio                                                                    1433-1499




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