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                                                                                                          100's BCE                00's BCE              00's CE

 



 

100                          Prince hunting deer and encountering a tree-nymph (Satavahana Dynasty)

                                Sandstone pillar from Bodhgaya (Shunga-Kanva Dynasty)

                                SECOND SERVILE WAR ...   (103-99)

                                SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                Teotihuacan founded

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Wu Ti ...                                (Western Han China)                          (148-87)                  Emperor

                                Nepos, Cornelius                                                                 100-25     Roman Historian

99                            SECOND SERVILE WAR - (103-99)

                                SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Wu Ti ...                                 (Western Han China)                          (148-87)                  Emperor

98                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Wu Ti ...                                 (Western Han China)                          (148-87)                  Emperor

97                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Wu Ti ...                                (Western Han China)                          (148-87)                  Emperor

96                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Wu Ti ...                                (Western Han China)                          (148-87)                  Emperor

                                Lucretius, Titus Carus                                                         96-55

95                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Wu Ti ...                                (Western Han China)                          (148-87)                  Emperor

94                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Wu Ti ...                                (Western Han China)                          (148-87)                  Emperor

93                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Wu Ti ...                                (Western Han China)                          (148-87)                  Emperor

92                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Wu Ti ...                                (Western Han China)                          (148-87)                  Emperor

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS +   (92B-627)

                                Lucullus invades Kingdom of Armenia

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Wu Ti ...                                (Western Han China)                          (148-87)                  Emperor

91                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                War between Rome and Italian cities - Sulla defeats Marius

                                Revolt of the Italian allies (critical period) (91-89)

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Wu Ti ...                                (Western Han China)                          (148-87)                  Emperor

90                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Social War (Rome) (90-88)

                                Revolt of Pharisees in Judaea

                                Earliest Saka invasions in India

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Wu Ti ...                                (Western Han China)                          (148-87)                  Emperor

89                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Roman army under Sulla regains control of Italy

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Wu Ti ...                                (Western Han China)                          (148-87)                  Emperor

88                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Complete citizenship granted to all Roman allies

                                Sulla marches his army on Rome

                                Sulla becomes consul

                                Athens merges with the Mithridates

                                Mithridates IV of Pontus overunning Roman territory

                                Civil war in Rome - Sulla victorious (88-82)

                                Sulla +                                    (Rome)                                                   Consul

                                Ptolemy IX Soter II +           (Egypt)                                                   PC 41

                                Ptolemy VIII +                       (Egypt)?

                                Ptolemy X Alexander I -      (Egypt)                                                   Lagid (with Cleopatra III)

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Wu Ti ...                                (Western Han China)                          (148-87)                  Emperor

87                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Cinna consul

                                First Mithridatic War - Sulla fights Mithridates IV Eupator king of Pontus in East (87-85)

                                Sulla's subjugation of Greece and Asia (87-83)

                                Sulla defeats Mithridates IV

                                Sulla takes and ruins Athens

                                Death of Emperor Wu Ti leads to period of disorder in China (86)

                                Regency established in China

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Wu Ti -                                  (Western Han China)                                          (148-87)                  Emperor

                                Xhao +                                   (Western Han China)                                          (87-74)                    Emperor

86                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Marius dies

                                Athens besieged and taken by Rome (Sulla) - Sulla's "bloody sack of Athens"

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Xhao ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (87-74)                    Emperor

                                Sallust                                                                                    86-34      

                                Gaius Marius                                                                        157-86     Roman Consul (4 times)

85                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Mithridates IV's armies driven back to Asia

                                Gaius Julius Caesar loses his father (84)

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Xhao ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (87-74)                    Emperor

84                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Xhao ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (87-74)                    Emperor

                                Catullus, Caius Valerius                                                      84-54                       Roman Poet (Verona)

83                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Second Mithridatic War - Romans successfully invade Pontus (-81)

                                Sulla lands at Brundisium

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Xhao ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (87-74)                    Emperor

82                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Battle of Colline Gate - Sulla dictator for life - oversees execution of 8,000 prisoners

                                Sulla ++                                  (Rome)                                                   (-78)        Dictator for Life

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Xhao ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (87-74)    Emperor

81                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Pompey receives appellation "The Great" (-78)

                                Sulla's dictatorship

                                Julius Caesar goes on his first military campaign - aide de camp to Marcus Thermus, governor of Asian province

                                Ptolemy VIII -                        (Egypt)?

                                Ptolemy IX Soter II -            (Egypt)                                                   PC 41

                                Ptolemy XI Alexander II +  (Egypt)                                                   with Cleopatra

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Xhao ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (87-74)    Emperor

80                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Ptolemy IX Soter II -           (Egypt)                                                                                                                                 PC 41*

                                Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysus +   (Egypt)                                                                                                                        PC 42*

                                Ptolemy X +-                         (Egypt)

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Xhao ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (87-74)    Emperor

79                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Sulla retires

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Xhao ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (87-74)    Emperor

78                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Sulla dies

                                Revolt of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus - defeated by Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey)

                                Caesar returns to Rome from campaign in Cilicia on hearing of Sulla's death - looking for rapid advancement

                                Sulla -                                     (Rome)                                                   (82-)        Dictator for Life

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Xhao ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (87-74)    Emperor

                                Sulla, Lucius Cornelius                                                       138-78                     Roman General/Dictator

77                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Pompey fights Sertorius in Spain (-71)

                                Alexander Jannaeus ...        (Judaea)                                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Xhao ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (87-74)    Emperor

76                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)       

                                Alexander Jannaeus -          (Judaea)                                 (103-76)                  King/High Priest

                                Salome Alexandra +             (Judaea)                                 (76-67)                    Queen

                                Xhao ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (87-74)    Emperor

75                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Salome Alexandra ...            (Judaea)                                                 (76-67)                    Queen

                                Xhao ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (87-74)    Emperor

74                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                Third Mithridatic War - Mithridates annexes Bythynia, which Rome claims (-61)

                                Bythinia bequeathed to Rome

                                Salome Alexandra ...            (Judaea)                                                 (76-67)                    Queen

                                Xhao -                                    (Western Han China)                          (87-74)    Emperor

                                Prince He of Changyi +-      (Western Han China)                          (74)         Emperor for 27 days

                                Xuan +                                   (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

73                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR +   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                THIRD SERVILE WAR (SPARTACAN REVOLT) +   (73-71)

                                Third Servile War - slave revolt under Spartacus put down by Marcus Licinius Crassus and Pompey (-71)

                                Lucius Licinius Lucullus with Roman Army defeats Mithridates and occupies Pontus

                                Salome Alexandra ...            (Judaea)                                                 (76-67)                    Queen

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

72                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                THIRD SERVILE WAR (SPARTACAN REVOLT) ...   (73-71)

                                Andhra Dynasty in India (72-25 B)

                                Salome Alexandra ...            (Judaea)                                                 (76-67)                    Queen

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

71                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                THIRD SERVILE WAR (SPARTACAN REVOLT) -   (73-71)

                                Crassus tries to restore Asia Minor

                                Salome Alexandra ...            (Judaea)                                                 (76-67)                    Queen

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

70                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Pompey and Crassus consuls

                                Cicero prosecutes Gaius Verres

                                Odin of the North +             (Denmark)                                              (70-50)

                                Salome Alexandra ...            (Judaea)                                                 (76-67)                    Queen

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

                                Virgil                                                                                       70-19

69                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Caesar becomes quaestor for first time

                                Salome Alexandra ...            (Judaea)                                                 (76-67)                    Queen

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

68                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Romans invade Armenia but are forces to retreat

                                Salome Alexandra ...            (Judaea)                                                 (76-67)                    Queen

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

67                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Gabinian Law - Pompey in command of Mediterranean

                                Pompey suppresses piracy

                                Civil war between brothers Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II in Judaea (-63)

                                Battle of Jushi - Han army under Zheng Ji defeats Xiongnu over the Turfan Basin in Xiajiang (12)

                                Salome Alexandra -              (Judaea)                                 (76-67)                    Queen

                                Hyrcanus II +                        (Judaea)                                 (67-66)1                  King/High Priest

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)           (74-49)    Emperor

66                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Manilian Law - Pompey in command of East, replacing Lucullus

                                Hyrcanus II -                         (Judaea)                                 (67-66)1                  King/High Priest

                                Aristobulus II +                    (Judaea)                                 (66-63)                    King/High Priest

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)           (74-49)    Emperor

65                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Pompey defeats Mithridates VI and Tigranes of Armenia

                                Rome annexes Bithynia and Pontus,  Syria, Cilicia, and Crete (-62)

                                Pompey invades Syria and conquers Palestine

                                Caesar becomes aedile

                                Antipater father of Herod family fortune

                                Aristobulus II ...                   (Judaea)                                                 (66-63)                    King/High Priest

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

                                Horace                                                                                   65-8

64                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Pompey occupies Antioch

                                Aristobulus II ...                   (Judaea)                                                 (66-63)                    King/High Priest

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

63                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Last portion of Seleucid Empire becomes Roman province of Syria

                                Pompey captures Jerusalem

                                Pompey annexes Syria and Judaea

                                Hyrcanus II high priest of Judaea (-40)

                                Catiline Conspiracy

                                Cicero consul

                                Pharnaces II +                       (Pontus)                                 (63-47)                    King

                                Aristobulus II -                     (Judaea)                                 (66-63)                    King/High Priest

                                Hyrcanus II +                        (Judaea)                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)           (74-49)    Emperor

                                Strabo                                                                                    63-24A

                                Mithridates Eupator                                                            131-63

62                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Pompey returns in triumph from East

                                Caesar becomes praetor

                                Pharnaces II ...                      (Pontus)                                                 (63-47)                    King

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

61                            SINO-XIONGNU WAR ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Gaius Julius Caesar, nephew of Marius and governor of Spain wins first major victories

                                Pharnaces II ...                      (Pontus)                                                 (63-47)                    King

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

60                            De Rerum Natura (Lucretius)

                                SINO-XIONGNU WAR ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                First Triumvirate - Pompey, Crassus, Caesar

                                Pharnaces II ...                      (Pontus)                                                 (63-47)                    King

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

                                Octavian                                                                                                60-14A                   Roman Emperor

59                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Caesar consul

                                Pharnaces II ...                      (Pontus)                                                 (63-47)                    King

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

                                Livy                                                                                        59-17A

58                            Flowering of Latin literature (58-50)

                                SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Helvetii meet with Allobroges at Geneva to discuss route through Roman Provence to conquer Gaul (3/28)

                                Caesar refuses to allow Helvetii and Allobroges tribes pass through Provence (4/12)

                                Clodius tribune

                                Caesar's conquest of Gaul

                                Caesar appointed governor of Gaul (France, Belgium, and parts of Holland, Germany and Switzerland)

                                Glass blowing discovered in Syria

                                Pharnaces II ...                      (Pontus)                                                 (63-47)                    King

                                Ptolemy XI -                          (Egypt)

                                Ptolemy XII -                         (Egypt)                                                   Neos Dionysus                    PC 42

                                Berenike IV +                        (Egypt)                                                   Queen

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

57                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Cicero exiled

                                Vikrama Era begins -victory of Andhra (Ujjain)  King Vikramaditya over the Sakas

                                Pharnaces II ...                      (Pontus)                                                 (63-47)                    King

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Orodes I +                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

56                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Caesar conquers all three Gauls

                                Conference of Triumvirate at Luca

                                Pharnaces II ...                      (Pontus)                                                 (63-47)                    King

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Orodes I ...                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

55                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Caesar conquers northern Gaul and unsuccessfully attempts to invade Britain

                                Odin of the North -              (Denmark)                                              (70-55)

                                Skiold +                                  (Denmark)                                              (55-40)

                                Pharnaces II ...                      (Pontus)                                                 (63-47)                    King

                                Berenike IV -                         (Egypt)                                                   Queen

                                Ptolemy XI +                         (Egypt)?

                                Ptolemy XII +                        (Egypt)                                                   Neos Dionysus (again)       PC 42

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Orodes I ...                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

                                Tibullus                                                                                 55-19       Poet (Rom./Pedum/Praeneste)

                                Lucretius, Titus Carus                                                         96-55

54                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Julia, Caesar's only daughter, dies in childbirth - Pompey was married to Julia

                                Second Roman invasion of Britain under Caesar - Cassivellaunus to pay tribute to Rome

                                Crassus' armies are annihilated by Parthian forces

                                Pharnaces II ...                      (Pontus)                                                 (63-47)                    King

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Orodes I ...                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

                                Catullus, Caius Valerius                                                      84-54       Roman Poet (Verona)

53                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Battle of Carrhea - Marcus Licinius Crasssus killed fighting the Parthians under Orodes I

                                Pharnaces II ...                      (Pontus)                                                 (63-47)                    King

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Orodes I ...                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

52                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Caesar defeats Vercingetorix' revolt in Gaul

                                Pompey sole consul in Rome

                                Pompey marries Cornelia, daughter of Metellus Scipio

                                Pharnaces II ...                      (Pontus)                                                 (63-47)                    King

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Orodes I ...                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

51                            De Bello Gallico (Caesar)

                                SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Caesar completes conquest of Gaul

                                Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XII rule Egypt

                                Peace between China and Hsiung-nu

                                Pharnaces II ...                      (Pontus)                                                 (63-47)                    King

                                Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysus - (Egypt)                                                                                                              PC 42*

                                Cleopatra VII Philopater + (Egypt)                                                                                                    PC 43*

                                Ptolemy XIII +                      (Egypt)                                                   with Cleopatra VII

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Orodes I ...                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

                                Posidonius                                                                            135-51

50                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Political maneuvering between Caesar and Pompey - Caesar's return to consulship resisted

                                Pharnaces II ...                      (Pontus)                                                 (63-47)                    King

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Orodes I ...                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Xuan ...                                  (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

49                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Roman Civil War (49-45)

                                Senate orders Caesar to give up command in Gaul

                                Caesar crosses Rubicon into Italy - a gesture of defiance

                                Pompey and the Roman Senate flee to Greece

                                Pharnaces II ...                      (Pontus)                                                 (63-47)                    King

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Orodes I ...                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Xuan -                                    (Western Han China)                          (74-49)    Emperor

                                Yuan +                                   (Western Han China)                          (49-33)    Emperor

48                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Battle of Pharsalus - Caesar defeats Pompey in Greece (8/9)

                                Pompey the Great is stabbed and decapitated  in Egypt  on his birthday by regent Pothinus (9/28-29)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Caesar in Egypt with Cleopatra VII (48-47)

                                Pharnaces II ...                      (Pontus)                                                 (63-47)                    King

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Orodes I ...                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Yuan ...                                   (Western Han China)                          (48-33)                    Emperor

                                Pompey  the Great                                                                106-48     Roman General/Politician                                   

47                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Battle of Zela - Caesar removes Pontic threat of Pharnaces II - Roman rule in Pontus

                                Caesar conquers Cleopatra's enemies and makes her his mistress

                                Antipater becomes procurator of Judaea - his son Herod governor of Galilee (-4B)

                                Destruction of Library at Alexandria

                                Pharnaces II -                       (Pontus)                                 (63-47)                   King

                                Ptolemy XII -                        (Egypt)

                                Ptolemy XIII +-                     (Egypt)

                                Ptolemy XIV +                      (Egypt)                                                   (47-44)                   Pharaoh with Cleopatra VII

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Orodes I ...                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Yuan ...                                   (Western Han China)                          (49-33)                    Emperor

46                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Battle of Thapsus - Caesar's Populares defeat Optimates forces under Cato and Scipio (2/6)

                                ------------------------------------------------------

                                Caesar returns to Rome with Cleopatra

                                Caesar crushes mutiny by the Tenth Legion

                                Caesar defeats Pompey's son Sextus in Africa

                                Africa becomes a Roman Provence

                                Caesar reforms Roman calendar - introduces Julian calendar (introduction of the solar year) (45)

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Orodes I ...                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Yuan ...                                   (Western Han China)                          (49-33)                    Emperor

45                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Battle of Monda - Optimates defeated in last battle of the Caesar/Pompey Civil War in southern Spain (3/17)

                                -------------------------------------------------------

                                Caesar defeats Sextus in Spain

                                Caesar adopts Octavius (Octavian) as his heir

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Orodes I ...                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Yuan ...                                   (Western Han China)                          (49-33)                    Emperor

44                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Caesar assassinated by conspirators Junius Brutus and Cassius Longinus (3/15)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Caesar dictator for life                                         (45)

                                Marcus Antonius seixes power

                                Rivalry between Antony and Octavian

                                Sallust retires from politics to the study of history

                                Ptolemy XIII -                       (Egypt)

                                Ptolemy XIV -                       (Egypt)                                                   with Cleopatra VII

                                Ptolemy XV Caesarion +     (Egypt)                                                   with Cleopatra VII

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Orodes I ...                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Yuan ...                                   (Western Han China)                          (49-33)                    Emperor

                                Julius Caesar                                                                         102-44

43                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Cicero murdered (12/7)

                                Second Triumvirate - Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus  (two terms)  (-33)

                                Lucius Munatius Plancus, an officer of Julius Caesar,  founds Copia Lugdunum (Lyons)

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Orodes I ...                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Yuan ...                                   (Western Han China)                          (49-33)                    Emperor

                                Ovid                                                                                       43-18         Poet (Sulmo/Appenines)

                                Marcus Tullius Cicero                                                         106-43

42                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Battle of Philippi - Triumvirate defeats Brutus and Cassus (Caesar's assassins) who commit suicide (10/3&23)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Caesar deified with temple constructed in the Forum

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Orodes I ...                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Yuan ...                                   (Western Han China)                          (49-33)                    Emperor

41                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Battle of Perugia begins  - Octavian defeats Lucius Antonius and Marc Antony's wife Fulvia

                                Arsinoe IV dies, sister of Cleopatra VII

                                Hyrcanus II ...                       (Judaea)                                                 (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Yuan ...                                   (Western Han China)                          (49-33)                    Emperor

40                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Battle of Perugia ends

                                Antigonus, son of Aristobulus II invades Judaea with Parthian aid

                                Antony marries Octavian's sister Octavia

                                Skiold -                                   (Denmark)                                              (55-)

                                Fridlief I +                              (Denmark)                                              (-23A)

                                Hyrcanus II -                         (Judaea)                                                (63-40)2                  King/High Priest

                                Antigonus the Hasmonean + (Judaea)                                             (40-37)                    King/High Priest

                                Orodes I ...                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Yuan ...                                   (Western Han China)                          (49-33)                    Emperor

39                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Pact of Misenum - Sextus Pompey recognized in Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Peloponnese

                                Antigonus the Hasmonean ... (Judaea)                                            (40-37)                    King/High Priest

                                Orodes I ...                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Yuan ...                                   (Western Han China)                          (49-33)                    Emperor

38                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Octavian forces Livia Drusilla to divorce Tiberius Claudius Nero and marry himself

                                Antigonus the Hasmonean ... (Judaea)                                            (40-37)                    King/High Priest

                                Orodes I ...                             (Parthia)                                                 (57-37)                    King

                                Yuan ...                                   (Western Han China)                          (49-33)                    Emperor

37                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Antony marries Cleopatra (36)

                                Tiumvirate renewed for five years

                                Octavian receives partial tribunican power

                                Antony marries Cleopatra while married to Octavia

                                Anitgonus defeated and put to death by Herod

                                Antigonus the Hasmonean - (Judaea)                                              (40-37)                    King/High Priest

                                Herod the Great +                 (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   King by Roman appointment

                                Orodes I -                              (Parthia)                                                  (57-37)                    King

                                Phraates IV +                        (Parthia)                                                   (37-2B)                   King

                                Yuan ...                                   (Western Han China)                          (49-33)                    Emperor

36                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Octavian's fleet defeats Pompey's fleet

                                Phraates IV King of Parthia defeats Antony

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus +                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A)                 King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Yuan ...                                   (Western Han China)                          (49-33)                    Emperor

35                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Illyria becomes a Roman province

                                Octavian invades Pannonia - occuppies Siscia

                                Sextus  Pompeius is executed in Miletus

                                Aristobulus III High Priest of Judea murdered (drowned) on orders of Herod

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A)                King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Yuan ...                                   (Western Han China)                          (49-33)                    Emperor

34                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Antony conquers Armenia

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A)                 King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Yuan ...                                   (Western Han China)                          (49-33)                    Emperor

                                Sallust                                                                                    86-34

33                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Hyrcanus II returns to Judaea from Parthia without his ears

                                End of Second Triumvirate

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A)                King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Yuan -                                    (Western Han China)                          (49-33)                    Emperor

                                Cheng +                                  (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

32                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Antony formally divorces Octavia

                                Octavian declares war on Antony and Cleopatra

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A)                 King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

31                            Classical Age of Latin literatue (31-68 C.E.)

                                SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Battle of Actium - Octavian's fleet defeats combined fleet of Antony and Cleopatra - Octavian supreme (9/2)

                                Julio-Claudian dynasty in Rome - Augustus, stepson Tiberius and members of Tiberius' family (-68)

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A)                 King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

30                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide (11/30)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Egypt becomes a Roman province (-395)

                                Hyrcanus II executed on charge of treason

                                Ptolemy XIV -                       (Egypt)                                                   executed by Octavian

                                Ptolemy XV Caesarion +     (Egypt)                                                   with Cleopatra VII  (same as XIV?)

                                Cleopatra VII -                      (Egypt)                                                                                                                   PC 43*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A)                King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

                                Philo Judaeus of Alexandria                                               30-50 C.E.

29                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                CANTABRIAN WARS +   (29B-19B)               Roman pacification of  HispaniaTarraconensis

                                Octavian returns to Rome and hold three "triumphs" and declares peace

                                Dorosturum founded - major town in Moesia

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King              

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor                

28                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                CANTABRIAN WARS ...  (29B-19B)               Roman pacification of  HispaniaTarraconensis

                                Purge of the Roman senate

                                Octavian receives title Princeps

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

27                            Aeneid (Vergil)

                                Ars Poetica (Horace)

                                Metamorphoses (Ovid)

                                SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                CANTABRIAN WARS ...  (29B-19B)               Roman pacification of  HispaniaTarraconensis

                                Octavian named Augustus and given supreme power by the Senate (1/16)

                                --------------------------------------------------------

                                Crisis officially over - governorships of unarmed provinces restored to the senate

                                Republic nominally continues

                                The Roman Principate (-284)

                                Augustus begins two year campaign in Spain to subdue rebellious tribes

                                Augustus +                           (Roman Empire)                                   (27B-14A)              Octavian /   Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A)                 King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

                                Varro, Marcus Terentius                                                     116-27    

26                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                CANTABRIAN WARS ...  (29B-19B)               Roman pacification of  HispaniaTarraconensis

                                Tiridates II invades Parthia - issues coins dated from March and May

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A)                 King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

25                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                CANTABRIAN WARS ...  (29B-19B)               Roman pacification of  HispaniaTarraconensis

                                Kushan invasions in India

                                Andhra Dynasty in India ends (72-25)

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A)                 King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

                                Nepos, Cornelius                                                                 100-25     Roman Historian/Biographer

24                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                CANTABRIAN WARS ...  (29B-19B)               Roman pacification of  HispaniaTarraconensis

                                Rome invades northern Arabia but soon withdraws

                                Expedition of Aelius Gallus to south Arabia

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A)                King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

23                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                CANTABRIAN WARS ...  (29B-19B)               Roman pacification of  HispaniaTarraconensis

                                Augustus resigns consulship and receives highest power in state (maius imperium); assumes princeps title

                                Execution of Aulus Terentius Varro Murena on charges of treason

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A)                 King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

22                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                CANTABRIAN WARS ...  (29B-19B)               Roman pacification of  HispaniaTarraconensis

                                Nubian capital of Napata sacked by the Romans

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

21                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                CANTABRIAN WARS ...  (29B-19B)               Roman pacification of  HispaniaTarraconensis

                                Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa divorces Claudia Marcella Major - marries Octavians daughter, Julia the Elder

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

20                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                CANTABRIAN WARS ...  (29B-19B)               Roman pacification of  HispaniaTarraconensis

                                Rome and Parthia define spheres of influence

                                Augustus recovers the standards lost by Crassus and Marc Antony by treaty with Parthia - Roman honor vindicated

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

19                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92B-627)

                                CANTABRIAN WARS -    (29B-19B)             Roman pacification of  HispaniaTarraconensis

                                Execution of Marcus Egnatius Rufus  on charges of treason

                                Vergil and Augustus go on journey to Greece but Vergil gets sick and turns back - dies at Brindisi

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

                                Tibullus, Albius                                                                   55-19       Poet (Rom./Pedum/Praeneste) (48)

                                Maro, Publius Vergilius (Virgil)                                         70-19       Poet (Mantua, Cisalpine Gaul)

18                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

17                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Romans celebrate Ludi Saeculares - concluding the fifth era (saeculum) since the founding of Rome

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

16                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Defeat Marcus Lollius in Germany

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

15                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Roman empire extends to upper Danube

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

14                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

13                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

12                            Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar quells revolt in Pannonia (northern Yugoslavia) after three years

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Antiochus III Epiphanes + (Commagene)                                        (12B-17A)              King

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

11                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Antiochus III Epiphanes ... (Commagene)                                       (12B-17A)              King

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

10                            SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Antiochus III Epiphanes ... (Commagene)                                       (12B-17A)              King

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

                                Claudius                                                                              10-54 C.E.     Roman Emperor

9                              Altar of Peace - dedicated

                                SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Tiberius carries out the conquest of  Germany (9-7B)

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Antiochus III Epiphanes ... (Commagene)                                       (12B-17A)              King

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

8                              SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Antiochus III Epiphanes ... (Commagene)                                       (12B-17A)              King

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng ...                                (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

                                Horace                                                                                   65-8

7                              SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Aristobulus IV is executed along with his brother Alexandros for "High Treason" against Herod the Great

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Antiochus III Epiphanes ... (Commagene)                                       (12B-17A)              King

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Cheng -                                  (Western Han Empire)                         (33-7B)                   Emperor

                                Ai +                                        (Western Han China)                          (7B-1B)                   Emperor

6                              SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Tiberius is sent to Armenia

                                Tiberius in Rhodes (6B-2)

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Antiochus III Epiphanes ... (Commagene)                                       (12B-17A)              King

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Ai ...                                        (Western Han China)                          (7B-1B)                   Emperor                

5                              SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great ...                (Judaea)                                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Antiochus III Epiphanes ... (Commagene)                                       (12B-17A)              King

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Ai ...                                        (Western Han China)                          (7B-1B)                   Emperor

4                              SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Tiberius in Rhodes (6B-2)

                                Death of Herod the Great - Judaea partitioned

                                Ethnarch of Samaria and Judaea - Herod Archaelaus

                                Tetrarch of Galilee - Herod Antipas

                                Tetrarch of Itaraea - Philip

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod the Great -  (Judaea)                                 (37-4B)                   Roman client King

                                Herod Archaelaus +            (Judaea)                                 (4B-6A)                  Ethnarch (vis. Augustus)

                                Herod Antipas +                  (Galilee/Perea)                                       (4B-39)                   Tetrarch (b. Archelaus)

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Antiochus III Epiphanes ... (Commagene)                                       (12B-17A)              King

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Ai ...                                        (Western Han China)                          (7B-1B)                   Emperor

                                Jesus of Nazareth                                                                 4-33

                                Seneca                                                                                   4-65

3                              SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Tiberius in Rhodes (6B-2)

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod Archaelaus ...            (Judaea)                                                 (4B-6A)                  Ethnarch (vis. Augustus)

                                Herod Antipas ...                  (Galilee/Perea)                                       (4B-39)                   Tetrarch (b. Archelaus)

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Antiochus III Epiphanes ... (Commagene)                                       (12B-17A)              King

                                Phraates IV ...                        (Parthia)                                                 (37-2B)                   King

                                Ai ...                                        (Western Han China)                          (7B-1B)                   Emperor

                                Paul                                                                                        3-65     Apostle

2                              SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Tiberius returns to Rome from Rhodes on the death of Lucius Caesar at Marseilles

                                Iullus Antonius (son of Marc Antony) is forced to commit suicide

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod Archaelaus ...            (Judaea)                                                 (4B-6A)                  Ethnarch (vis. Augustus)

                                Herod Antipas ...                  (Galilee/Perea)                                       (4B-39)                   Tetrarch (b. Archelaus)

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Antiochus III Epiphanes ... (Commagene)                                       (12B-17A)              King

                                Phraates IV -                         (Parthia)                                                  (37-2B)                   King

                                Phraates V +                          (Parthia)                                                 (2B-4)                     King (s. Phraates IV)

                                Ai ...                                        (Western Han China)                          (7B-1B)                   Emperor

1                              SINO-XIONGNU WARS ...   (133B-89A)

                                ROMAN-PERSIAN WARS ...   (92-627)

                                Tiberius in Rhodes (ca. 6B-2)

                                Augustus ...                          (Roman Empire)                                    (27B-14A)              Emperor PC 44*

                                Herod Archaelaus ...            (Judaea)                                                 (4B-6A)                  Ethnarch (vis. Augustus)

                                Herod Antipas ...                  (Galilee/Perea)                                       (4B-39)                   Tetrarch (b. Archelaus)

                                Archelaus ...                          (Cappadocia)                                        (37-17A) King (by Marc Antony)

                                Antiochus III Epiphanes ... (Commagene)                                       (12B-17A)              King

                                Phraates V ...                         (Parthia)                                                 (2B-4)                     King (s. Phraates IV)

                                Ai -                                         (Western Han China)                          (7B-1B)                   Emperor

                                Ping +                                     (Western Han China)                          (1B-5)                     Emperor

 

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